An entry point is a Python object in a project’s code that is identified by a string in the project’s setup.py file. The entry point is referenced by a group and a name so that the object may be discoverable. This means that another application can search for all the installed software that has an entry point with a particular group name, and then access the Python object associated with that name.
This is extremely useful because it means it is possible to write plugins for an appropriately-designed application that can be loaded at run time. This document describes just such an application.
It is important to understand that entry points are a feature of the new Python eggs package format and are not a standard feature of Python. To learn about eggs, their benefits, how to install them and how to set them up, see:
If reading the above documentation is inconvenient, suffice it to say that eggs are created via a similar setup.py file to the one used by Python’s own distutils module — except that eggs have some powerful extra features such as entry points and the ability to specify module dependencies and have them automatically installed by easy_install when the application itself is installed.
For those developers unfamiliar with distutils: it is the standard mechanism by which Python packages should be distributed. To use it, add a setup.py file to the desired project, insert the required metadata and specify the important files. The setup.py file can be used to issue various commands which create distributions of the pacakge in various formats for users to install.
This document describes how to use entry points to create a plugin mechansim which allows new types of content to be added to a content management system but we are going to start by looking at the plugin.
Say the standard way the CMS creates a plugin is with the make_plugin() function. In order for a plugin to be a plugin it must therefore have the function which takes the same arguments as the make_plugin() function and returns a plugin. We are going to add some image plugins to the CMS so we setup a project with the following directory structure:
+ image_plugins + __init__.py + setup.py
The image_plugins/__init__.py file looks like this:
def make_jpeg_image_plugin(): return "This would return the JPEG image plugin" def make_png_image_plugin(): return "This would return the PNG image plugin"
We have now defined our plugins so we need to define our entry points. First lets write a basic setup.py for the project:
from setuptools import setup, find_packages setup( name='ImagePlugins', version="1.0", description="Image plugins for the imaginary CMS 1.0 project", author="James Gardner", packages=find_packages(), include_package_data=True, )
When using setuptools we can specify the find_packages() function and include_package_data=True rather than having to manually list all the modules and package data like we had to do in the old distutils setup.py.
Because the plugin is designed to work with the (imaginary) CMS 1.0 package, we need to specify that the plugin requires the CMS to be installed too and so we add this line to the setup() function:
Now when the plugins are installed, CMS 1.0 or above will be installed automatically if it is not already present.
There are lots of other arguments such as author_email or url which you can add to the setup.py function too.
We are interested in adding the entry points. We need to decide on a group name for the entry points. It is traditional to use the name of the package using the entry point, separated by a . character and then use a name that describes what the entry point does. For our example cms.plugin might be an appropriate name for the entry point. Since the image_plugin module contains two plugins we will need two entries. Add the following to the setup.py function:
entry_points=""" [cms.plugin] jpg_image=image_plugin:make_jpeg_image_plugin png_image=image_plugin:make_jpeg_image_plugin """,
Group names are specified in square brackets, plugin names are specified in the format name=module.import.path:object_within_the_module. The object doesn’t have to be a function and can have any valid Python name. The module import path doesn’t have to be a top level component as it is in this example and the name of the entry point doesn’t have to be the same as the name of the object it is pointing to.
The developer can add as many entries as desired in each group as long as the names are different and the same holds for adding groups. It is also possible to specify the entry points as a Python dictionary rather than a string if that approach is preferred.
There are two more things we need to do to complete the plugin. The first is to include an ez_setup module so that if the user installing the plugin doesn’t have setuptools installed, it will be installed for them. We do this by adding the follwoing to the very top of the setup.py file before the import:
from ez_setup import use_setuptools use_setuptools()
We also need to download the ez_setup.py file into our project directory at the same level as setup.py.
If you keep your project in SVN there is a trick you can use with the `SVN:externals to keep the ez_setup.py file up to date.
Finally in order for the CMS to find the plugins we need to install them. We can do this with:
$ python setup.py install
as usual or, since we might go on to develop the plugins further we can install them using a special development mode which sets up the paths to run the plugins from the source rather than installing them to Python’s site-packages directory:
$ python setup.py develop
Both commands will download and install setuptools if you don’t already have it installed.
Now that the plugin is written we need to write the code in the CMS package to load it. Luckily this is even easier.
There are actually lots of ways of discovering plugins. For example: by distribution name and version requirement (such as ImagePlugins>=1.0) or by the entry point group and name (eg jpg_image). For this example we are choosing the latter, here is a simple script for loading the plugins:
from pkg_resources import iter_entry_points for object in iter_entry_points(group='cms.plugin', name=None): print object() from pkg_resources import iter_entry_points available_methods =  for method_handler in iter_entry_points(group='authkit.method', name=None): available_methods.append(method_handler.load())
Executing this short script, will result in the following output:
This would return the JPEG image plugin This would return the PNG image plugin
The iter_entry_points() function has looped though all the objects in the cms.plugin group and returned the function they were associated with. The application then called the function that the entry point was pointing to.
We hope that we have demonstrated the power of entry points for building extensible code and developers are encouraged to read the pkg_resources module documentation to learn about some more features of the eggs format.