Documentation is outdated Edit me on GitHub

Source code for pyramid.paster

import ConfigParser
import os
import sys
from code import interact

import zope.deprecation

from paste.deploy import loadapp
from paste.script.command import Command

from pyramid.interfaces import IMultiView

from pyramid.scripting import get_root
from pyramid.scripting import prepare
from pyramid.util import DottedNameResolver

from pyramid.scaffolds import PyramidTemplate # bw compat
    'PyramidTemplate', ('pyramid.paster.PyramidTemplate was moved to '
                        'pyramid.scaffolds.PyramidTemplate in Pyramid 1.1'),

[docs]def get_app(config_uri, name=None, loadapp=loadapp): """ Return the WSGI application named ``name`` in the PasteDeploy config file specified by ``config_uri``. If the ``name`` is None, this will attempt to parse the name from the ``config_uri`` string expecting the format ``inifile#name``. If no name is found, the name will default to "main".""" if '#' in config_uri: path, section = config_uri.split('#', 1) else: path, section = config_uri, 'main' if name: section = name config_name = 'config:%s' % path here_dir = os.getcwd() app = loadapp(config_name, name=section, relative_to=here_dir) return app
[docs]def bootstrap(config_uri, request=None): """ Load a WSGI application from the PasteDeploy config file specified by ``config_uri``. The environment will be configured as if it is currently serving ``request``, leaving a natural environment in place to write scripts that can generate URLs and utilize renderers. This function returns a dictionary with ``app``, ``root``, ``closer``, ``request``, and ``registry`` keys. ``app`` is the WSGI app loaded (based on the ``config_uri``), ``root`` is the traversal root resource of the Pyramid application, and ``closer`` is a parameterless callback that may be called when your script is complete (it pops a threadlocal stack). .. note:: Most operations within :app:`Pyramid` expect to be invoked within the context of a WSGI request, thus it's important when loading your application to anchor it when executing scripts and other code that is not normally invoked during active WSGI requests. .. note:: For a complex config file containing multiple :app:`Pyramid` applications, this function will setup the environment under the context of the last-loaded :app:`Pyramid` application. You may load a specific application yourself by using the lower-level functions :meth:`pyramid.paster.get_app` and :meth:`pyramid.scripting.prepare` in conjunction with :attr:`pyramid.config.global_registries`. ``config_uri`` -- specifies the PasteDeploy config file to use for the interactive shell. The format is ``inifile#name``. If the name is left off, ``main`` will be assumed. ``request`` -- specified to anchor the script to a given set of WSGI parameters. For example, most people would want to specify the host, scheme and port such that their script will generate URLs in relation to those parameters. A request with default parameters is constructed for you if none is provided. You can mutate the request's ``environ`` later to setup a specific host/port/scheme/etc. See :ref:`writing_a_script` for more information about how to use this function. """ app = get_app(config_uri) env = prepare(request) env['app'] = app return env
_marker = object() class PCommand(Command): get_app = staticmethod(get_app) # hook point get_root = staticmethod(get_root) # hook point group_name = 'pyramid' interact = (interact,) # for testing loadapp = (loadapp,) # for testing bootstrap = (bootstrap,) # testing verbose = 3 def __init__(self, *arg, **kw): # needs to be in constructor to support Jython (used to be at class # scope as ``usage = '\n' + __doc__``. self.usage = '\n' + self.__doc__ Command.__init__(self, *arg, **kw) class PShellCommand(PCommand): """Open an interactive shell with a :app:`Pyramid` app loaded. This command accepts one positional argument: ``config_uri`` -- specifies the PasteDeploy config file to use for the interactive shell. The format is ``inifile#name``. If the name is left off, ``main`` will be assumed. Example:: $ paster pshell myapp.ini#main .. note:: If you do not point the loader directly at the section of the ini file containing your :app:`Pyramid` application, the command will attempt to find the app for you. If you are loading a pipeline that contains more than one :app:`Pyramid` application within it, the loader will use the last one. """ summary = "Open an interactive shell with a Pyramid application loaded" min_args = 1 max_args = 1 parser = Command.standard_parser(simulate=True) parser.add_option('-d', '--disable-ipython', action='store_true', dest='disable_ipython', help="Don't use IPython even if it is available") ConfigParser = ConfigParser.ConfigParser # testing def pshell_file_config(self, filename): resolver = DottedNameResolver(None) self.loaded_objects = {} self.object_help = {} config = self.ConfigParser() try: items = config.items('pshell') except ConfigParser.NoSectionError: return for k, v in items: self.loaded_objects[k] = resolver.maybe_resolve(v) self.object_help[k] = v def command(self, IPShell=_marker): # IPShell passed to command method is for testing purposes if IPShell is _marker: # pragma: no cover try: from IPython.Shell import IPShell except ImportError: IPShell = None config_uri = self.args[0] config_file = config_uri.split('#', 1)[0] self.logging_file_config(config_file) self.pshell_file_config(config_file) # bootstrap the environ env = self.bootstrap[0](config_uri) # remove the closer from the env closer = env.pop('closer') # setup help text for default environment env_help = dict(env) env_help['app'] = 'The WSGI application.' env_help['root'] = 'Root of the default resource tree.' env_help['registry'] = 'Active Pyramid registry.' env_help['request'] = 'Active request object.' env_help['root_factory'] = ( 'Default root factory used to create `root`.') # load the pshell section of the ini file env.update(self.loaded_objects) # eliminate duplicates from env, allowing custom vars to override for k in self.loaded_objects: if k in env_help: del env_help[k] # generate help text help = '\n' if env_help: help += 'Environment:' for var in sorted(env_help.keys()): help += '\n %-12s %s' % (var, env_help[var]) if self.object_help: help += '\n\nCustom Variables:' for var in sorted(self.object_help.keys()): help += '\n %-12s %s' % (var, self.object_help[var]) help += '\n' if (IPShell is None) or self.options.disable_ipython: cprt = 'Type "help" for more information.' banner = "Python %s on %s\n%s" % (sys.version, sys.platform, cprt) banner += '\n' + help try: self.interact[0](banner, local=env) finally: closer() else: try: shell = IPShell(argv=[], user_ns=env) shell.IP.BANNER = shell.IP.BANNER + help shell.mainloop() finally: closer() BFGShellCommand = PShellCommand # b/w compat forever class PRoutesCommand(PCommand): """Print all URL dispatch routes used by a Pyramid application in the order in which they are evaluated. Each route includes the name of the route, the pattern of the route, and the view callable which will be invoked when the route is matched. This command accepts one positional argument: ``config_uri`` -- specifies the PasteDeploy config file to use for the interactive shell. The format is ``inifile#name``. If the name is left off, ``main`` will be assumed. Example:: $ paster proutes myapp.ini#main """ summary = "Print all URL dispatch routes related to a Pyramid application" min_args = 1 max_args = 1 stdout = sys.stdout parser = Command.standard_parser(simulate=True) def _get_mapper(self, registry): from pyramid.config import Configurator config = Configurator(registry = registry) return config.get_routes_mapper() def out(self, msg): # pragma: no cover print msg def command(self): from pyramid.interfaces import IRouteRequest from pyramid.interfaces import IViewClassifier from pyramid.interfaces import IView from zope.interface import Interface config_uri = self.args[0] env = self.bootstrap[0](config_uri) registry = env['registry'] mapper = self._get_mapper(registry) if mapper is not None: routes = mapper.get_routes() fmt = '%-15s %-30s %-25s' if not routes: return self.out(fmt % ('Name', 'Pattern', 'View')) self.out( fmt % ('-'*len('Name'), '-'*len('Pattern'), '-'*len('View'))) for route in routes: request_iface = registry.queryUtility(IRouteRequest, view_callable = None if (request_iface is None) or (route.factory is not None): self.out(fmt % (, route.pattern, '<unknown>')) else: view_callable = registry.adapters.lookup( (IViewClassifier, request_iface, Interface), IView, name='', default=None) self.out(fmt % (, route.pattern, view_callable)) class PViewsCommand(PCommand): """Print, for a given URL, the views that might match. Underneath each potentially matching route, list the predicates required. Underneath each route+predicate set, print each view that might match and its predicates. This command accepts two positional arguments: ``config_uri`` -- specifies the PasteDeploy config file to use for the interactive shell. The format is ``inifile#name``. If the name is left off, ``main`` will be assumed. ``url`` -- specifies the URL that will be used to find matching views. Example:: $ paster proutes myapp.ini#main url """ summary = "Print all views in an application that might match a URL" min_args = 2 max_args = 2 stdout = sys.stdout parser = Command.standard_parser(simulate=True) def out(self, msg): # pragma: no cover print msg def _find_multi_routes(self, mapper, request): infos = [] path = request.environ['PATH_INFO'] # find all routes that match path, regardless of predicates for route in mapper.get_routes(): match = route.match(path) if match is not None: info = {'match':match, 'route':route} infos.append(info) return infos def _find_view(self, url, registry): """ Accept ``url`` and ``registry``; create a :term:`request` and find a :app:`Pyramid` view based on introspection of :term:`view configuration` within the application registry; return the view. """ from zope.interface import providedBy from zope.interface import implements from pyramid.interfaces import IRequest from pyramid.interfaces import IRootFactory from pyramid.interfaces import IRouteRequest from pyramid.interfaces import IRequestFactory from pyramid.interfaces import IRoutesMapper from pyramid.interfaces import IView from pyramid.interfaces import IViewClassifier from pyramid.interfaces import ITraverser from pyramid.request import Request from pyramid.traversal import DefaultRootFactory from pyramid.traversal import ResourceTreeTraverser q = registry.queryUtility root_factory = q(IRootFactory, default=DefaultRootFactory) routes_mapper = q(IRoutesMapper) request_factory = q(IRequestFactory, default=Request) adapters = registry.adapters request = None class RoutesMultiView(object): implements(IMultiView) def __init__(self, infos, context_iface, root_factory, request): self.views = [] for info in infos: match, route = info['match'], info['route'] if route is not None: request_iface = registry.queryUtility( IRouteRequest,, default=IRequest) view = adapters.lookup( (IViewClassifier, request_iface, context_iface), IView, name='', default=None) if view is None: continue view.__request_attrs__ = {} view.__request_attrs__['matchdict'] = match view.__request_attrs__['matched_route'] = route root_factory = route.factory or root_factory root = root_factory(request) traverser = adapters.queryAdapter(root, ITraverser) if traverser is None: traverser = ResourceTreeTraverser(root) tdict = traverser(request) view.__request_attrs__.update(tdict) if not hasattr(view, '__view_attr__'): view.__view_attr__ = '' self.views.append((None, view, None)) # create the request environ = { 'wsgi.url_scheme':'http', 'SERVER_NAME':'localhost', 'SERVER_PORT':'8080', 'REQUEST_METHOD':'GET', 'PATH_INFO':url, } request = request_factory(environ) context = None routes_multiview = None attrs = request.__dict__ attrs['registry'] = registry request_iface = IRequest # find the root object if routes_mapper is not None: infos = self._find_multi_routes(routes_mapper, request) if len(infos) == 1: info = infos[0] match, route = info['match'], info['route'] if route is not None: attrs['matchdict'] = match attrs['matched_route'] = route request.environ['bfg.routes.matchdict'] = match request_iface = registry.queryUtility( IRouteRequest,, default=IRequest) root_factory = route.factory or root_factory if len(infos) > 1: routes_multiview = infos root = root_factory(request) attrs['root'] = root # find a context traverser = adapters.queryAdapter(root, ITraverser) if traverser is None: traverser = ResourceTreeTraverser(root) tdict = traverser(request) context, view_name, subpath, traversed, vroot, vroot_path =( tdict['context'], tdict['view_name'], tdict['subpath'], tdict['traversed'], tdict['virtual_root'], tdict['virtual_root_path']) attrs.update(tdict) # find a view callable context_iface = providedBy(context) if routes_multiview is None: view = adapters.lookup( (IViewClassifier, request_iface, context_iface), IView, name=view_name, default=None) else: view = RoutesMultiView(infos, context_iface, root_factory, request) # routes are not registered with a view name if view is None: view = adapters.lookup( (IViewClassifier, request_iface, context_iface), IView, name='', default=None) # we don't want a multiview here if IMultiView.providedBy(view): view = None if view is not None: view.__request_attrs__ = attrs return view def output_route_attrs(self, attrs, indent): route = attrs['matched_route'] self.out("%sroute name: %s" % (indent, self.out("%sroute pattern: %s" % (indent, route.pattern)) self.out("%sroute path: %s" % (indent, route.path)) self.out("%ssubpath: %s" % (indent, '/'.join(attrs['subpath']))) predicates = ', '.join([p.__text__ for p in route.predicates]) if predicates != '': self.out("%sroute predicates (%s)" % (indent, predicates)) def output_view_info(self, view_wrapper, level=1): indent = " " * level name = getattr(view_wrapper, '__name__', '') module = getattr(view_wrapper, '__module__', '') attr = getattr(view_wrapper, '__view_attr__', None) request_attrs = getattr(view_wrapper, '__request_attrs__', {}) if attr is not None: view_callable = "%s.%s.%s" % (module, name, attr) else: attr = view_wrapper.__class__.__name__ if attr == 'function': attr = name view_callable = "%s.%s" % (module, attr) self.out('') if 'matched_route' in request_attrs: self.out("%sRoute:" % indent) self.out("%s------" % indent) self.output_route_attrs(request_attrs, indent) permission = getattr(view_wrapper, '__permission__', None) if not IMultiView.providedBy(view_wrapper): # single view for this route, so repeat call without route data del request_attrs['matched_route'] self.output_view_info(view_wrapper, level+1) else: self.out("%sView:" % indent) self.out("%s-----" % indent) self.out("%s%s" % (indent, view_callable)) permission = getattr(view_wrapper, '__permission__', None) if permission is not None: self.out("%srequired permission = %s" % (indent, permission)) predicates = getattr(view_wrapper, '__predicates__', None) if predicates is not None: predicate_text = ', '.join([p.__text__ for p in predicates]) self.out("%sview predicates (%s)" % (indent, predicate_text)) def command(self): config_uri, url = self.args if not url.startswith('/'): url = '/%s' % url env = self.bootstrap[0](config_uri) registry = env['registry'] view = self._find_view(url, registry) self.out('') self.out("URL = %s" % url) self.out('') if view is not None: self.out(" context: %s" % view.__request_attrs__['context']) self.out(" view name: %s" % view.__request_attrs__['view_name']) if IMultiView.providedBy(view): for dummy, view_wrapper, dummy in view.views: self.output_view_info(view_wrapper) if IMultiView.providedBy(view_wrapper): for dummy, mv_view_wrapper, dummy in view_wrapper.views: self.output_view_info(mv_view_wrapper, level=2) else: if view is not None: self.output_view_info(view) else: self.out(" Not found.") self.out('') # For paste.deploy server instantiation (egg:pyramid#wsgiref) def wsgiref_server_runner(wsgi_app, global_conf, **kw): # pragma: no cover from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server host = kw.get('host', '') port = int(kw.get('port', 8080)) server = make_server(host, port, wsgi_app) print('Starting HTTP server on http://%s:%s' % (host, port)) server.serve_forever() # For paste.deploy server instantiation (egg:pyramid#cherrypy) def cherrypy_server_runner( app, global_conf=None, host='', port=None, ssl_pem=None, protocol_version=None, numthreads=None, server_name=None, max=None, request_queue_size=None, timeout=None ): # pragma: no cover """ Entry point for CherryPy's WSGI server Serves the specified WSGI app via CherryPyWSGIServer. ``app`` The WSGI 'application callable'; multiple WSGI applications may be passed as (script_name, callable) pairs. ``host`` This is the ipaddress to bind to (or a hostname if your nameserver is properly configured). This defaults to, which is not a public interface. ``port`` The port to run on, defaults to 8080 for HTTP, or 4443 for HTTPS. This can be a string or an integer value. ``ssl_pem`` This an optional SSL certificate file (via OpenSSL) You can generate a self-signed test PEM certificate file as follows: $ openssl genrsa 1024 > host.key $ chmod 400 host.key $ openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -sha1 -days 365 \\ -key host.key > host.cert $ cat host.cert host.key > host.pem $ chmod 400 host.pem ``protocol_version`` The protocol used by the server, by default ``HTTP/1.1``. ``numthreads`` The number of worker threads to create. ``server_name`` The string to set for WSGI's SERVER_NAME environ entry. ``max`` The maximum number of queued requests. (defaults to -1 = no limit). ``request_queue_size`` The 'backlog' argument to socket.listen(); specifies the maximum number of queued connections. ``timeout`` The timeout in seconds for accepted connections. """ is_ssl = False if ssl_pem: port = port or 4443 is_ssl = True if not port: if ':' in host: host, port = host.split(':', 1) else: port = 8080 bind_addr = (host, int(port)) kwargs = {} for var_name in ('numthreads', 'max', 'request_queue_size', 'timeout'): var = locals()[var_name] if var is not None: kwargs[var_name] = int(var) from cherrypy import wsgiserver server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer(bind_addr, app, server_name=server_name, **kwargs) server.ssl_certificate = server.ssl_private_key = ssl_pem if protocol_version: server.protocol = protocol_version try: protocol = is_ssl and 'https' or 'http' if host == '': print('serving on view at %s://' % (port, protocol, port)) else: print('serving on %s://%s:%s' % (protocol, host, port)) server.start() except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit): server.stop() return server

This Page