Using the Zope Component Architecture in Pyramid¶
zope.component API used to access data in a traditional Zope
application can be opaque. For example, here is a typical “unnamed
utility” lookup using the
zope.component.getUtility() global API
as it might appear in a traditional Zope application:
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from pyramid.interfaces import ISettings from zope.component import getUtility settings = getUtility(ISettings)
After this code runs,
settings will be a Python dictionary. But
it’s unlikely that any “civilian” will be able to figure this out just
by reading the code casually. When the
API is used by a developer, the conceptual load on a casual reader of
code is high.
While the ZCA is an excellent tool with which to build a framework
such as Pyramid, it is not always the best tool with which
to build an application due to the opacity of the
APIs. Accordingly, Pyramid tends to hide the presence of the
ZCA from application developers. You needn’t understand the ZCA to
create a Pyramid application; its use is effectively only a
framework implementation detail.
However, developers who are already used to writing Zope
applications often still wish to use the ZCA while building a
pyramid makes this possible.
Using the ZCA Global API in a Pyramid Application¶
Zope uses a single ZCA registry – the “global” ZCA registry – for all Zope applications that run in the same Python process, effectively making it impossible to run more than one Zope application in a single process.
However, for ease of deployment, it’s often useful to be able to run
more than a single application per process. For example, use of a
Paste “composite” allows you to run separate individual WSGI
applications in the same process, each answering requests for some URL
prefix. This makes it possible to run, for example, a TurboGears
/turbogears and a Pyramid application at
/pyramid, both served up using the same WSGI server
within a single Python process.
Most production Zope applications are relatively large, making it impractical due to memory constraints to run more than one Zope application per Python process. However, a Pyramid application may be very small and consume very little memory, so it’s a reasonable goal to be able to run more than one Pyramid application per process.
In order to make it possible to run more than one Pyramid application in a single process, Pyramid defaults to using a separate ZCA registry per application.
While this services a reasonable goal, it causes some issues when
trying to use patterns which you might use to build a typical
Zope application to build a Pyramid application.
Without special help, ZCA “global” APIs such as
will use the ZCA “global” registry. Therefore, these APIs
will appear to fail when used in a Pyramid application,
because they’ll be consulting the ZCA global registry rather than the
component registry associated with your Pyramid application.
There are three ways to fix this: by disusing the ZCA global API
entirely, by using
pyramid.config.Configurator.hook_zca() or by passing
the ZCA global registry to the Configurator constructor at
startup time. We’ll describe all three methods in this section.
Disusing the Global ZCA API¶
ZCA “global” API functions such as
zope.component.getMultiAdapter aren’t strictly necessary. Every
component registry has a method API that offers the same
functionality; it can be used instead. For example, presuming the
registry value below is a Zope Component Architecture component
registry, the following bit of code is equivalent to
The full method API is documented in the
but it largely mirrors the “global” API almost exactly.
If you are willing to disuse the “global” ZCA APIs and use the method interface of a registry instead, you need only know how to obtain the Pyramid component registry.
There are two ways of doing so:
- use the
pyramid.threadlocal.get_current_registry()function within Pyramid view or resource code. This will always return the “current” Pyramid application registry.
- use the attribute of the request object named
registryin your Pyramid view code, eg.
request.registry. This is the ZCA component registry related to the running Pyramid application.
Enabling the ZCA Global API by Using
Consider the following bit of idiomatic Pyramid startup code:
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from zope.component import getGlobalSiteManager from pyramid.config import Configurator def app(global_settings, **settings): config = Configurator(settings=settings) config.include('some.other.package') return config.make_wsgi_app()
app function above is run, a Configurator is
constructed. When the configurator is created, it creates a new
application registry (a ZCA component registry). A new
registry is constructed whenever the
registry argument is omitted
when a Configurator constructor is called, or when a
registry argument with a value of
None is passed to a
During a request, the application registry created by the Configurator
is “made current”. This means calls to
get_current_registry() in the thread
handling the request will return the component registry associated
with the application.
As a result, application developers can use
to get the registry and thus get access to utilities and such, as per
Disusing the Global ZCA API. But they still cannot use the
global ZCA API. Without special treatment, the ZCA global APIs will
always return the global ZCA registry (the one in
To “fix” this and make the ZCA global APIs use the “current”
Pyramid registry, you need to call
hook_zca() within your setup code.
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from zope.component import getGlobalSiteManager from pyramid.config import Configurator def app(global_settings, **settings): config = Configurator(settings=settings) config.hook_zca() config.include('some.other.application') return config.make_wsgi_app()
We’ve added a line to our original startup code, line number 6, which
config.hook_zca(). The effect of this line under the hood
is that an analogue of the following code is executed:
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from zope.component import getSiteManager from pyramid.threadlocal import get_current_registry getSiteManager.sethook(get_current_registry)
This causes the ZCA global API to start using the Pyramid application registry in threads which are running a Pyramid request.
hook_zca is usually sufficient to “fix” the problem of
being able to use the global ZCA API within a Pyramid
application. However, it also means that a Zope application that is
running in the same process may start using the Pyramid
global registry instead of the Zope global registry, effectively
inverting the original problem. In such a case, follow the steps in
the next section, Enabling the ZCA Global API by Using The ZCA Global Registry.
Enabling the ZCA Global API by Using The ZCA Global Registry¶
You can tell your Pyramid application to use the ZCA global registry at startup time instead of constructing a new one:
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from zope.component import getGlobalSiteManager from pyramid.config import Configurator def app(global_settings, **settings): globalreg = getGlobalSiteManager() config = Configurator(registry=globalreg) config.setup_registry(settings=settings) config.hook_zca() config.include('some.other.application') return config.make_wsgi_app()
Lines 5, 6, and 7 above are the interesting ones. Line 5 retrieves
the global ZCA component registry. Line 6 creates a
Configurator, passing the global ZCA registry into its
constructor as the
registry argument. Line 7 “sets up” the global
registry with Pyramid-specific registrations; this is code that is
normally executed when a registry is constructed rather than created,
but we must call it “by hand” when we pass an explicit registry.
At this point, Pyramid will use the ZCA global registry rather than creating a new application-specific registry; since by default the ZCA global API will use this registry, things will work as you might expect a Zope app to when you use the global ZCA API.