> Read the latest version of this page
Edit me on GitHub

Paste

Packages generated via a scaffold make use of a system created by Ian Bicking named Paste. Paste provides the following features:

  • A way to declare WSGI application configuration in an .ini file (PasteDeploy).
  • A WSGI server runner (paster serve) which can accept PasteDeploy .ini file values as input.
  • A mechanism for rendering scaffolds into projects (paster create).

Paste is not a particularly integral part of Pyramid. It’s more or less used directly only in projects created from scaffolds. It’s possible to create a Pyramid application which does not use Paste at all. We show a Pyramid application that doesn’t use Paste in Creating Your First Pyramid Application. However, all Pyramid scaffolds use the system, to provide new developers with a standardized way of starting, stopping, and setting deployment values. This chapter is not a replacement for documentation about Paste or PasteDeploy; it only contextualizes the use of Paste within Pyramid. For detailed documentation, see http://pythonpaste.org.

PasteDeploy

PasteDeploy is the system that Pyramid uses to allow deployment settings to be spelled using an .ini configuration file format. It also allows the paster serve command to work. Its configuration format provides a convenient place to define application deployment settings and WSGI server settings, and its server runner allows you to stop and start a Pyramid application easily.

Entry Points and PasteDeploy .ini Files

In the Creating a Pyramid Project chapter, we breezed over the meaning of a configuration line in the deployment.ini file. This was the use = egg:MyProject line in the [app:main] section. We breezed over it because it’s pretty confusing and “too much information” for an introduction to the system. We’ll try to give it a bit of attention here. Let’s see the config file again:

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
[app:main]
use = egg:MyProject

pyramid.reload_templates = true
pyramid.debug_authorization = false
pyramid.debug_notfound = false
pyramid.debug_routematch = false
pyramid.debug_templates = true
pyramid.default_locale_name = en
pyramid.includes = pyramid_debugtoolbar

[server:main]
use = egg:Paste#http
host = 0.0.0.0
port = 6543

# Begin logging configuration

[loggers]
keys = root, myproject

[handlers]
keys = console

[formatters]
keys = generic

[logger_root]
level = INFO
handlers = console

[logger_myproject]
level = DEBUG
handlers =
qualname = myproject

[handler_console]
class = StreamHandler
args = (sys.stderr,)
level = NOTSET
formatter = generic

[formatter_generic]
format = %(asctime)s %(levelname)-5.5s [%(name)s] %(message)s

# End logging configuration

The line in [app:main] above that says use = egg:MyProject is actually shorthand for a longer spelling: use = egg:MyProject#main. The #main part is omitted for brevity, as #main is a default defined by PasteDeploy. egg:MyProject#main is a string which has meaning to PasteDeploy. It points at a setuptools entry point named main defined in the MyProject project.

Take a look at the generated setup.py file for this project.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
import os

from setuptools import setup, find_packages

here = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))
README = open(os.path.join(here, 'README.txt')).read()
CHANGES = open(os.path.join(here, 'CHANGES.txt')).read()

requires = ['pyramid', 'pyramid_debugtoolbar']

setup(name='MyProject',
      version='0.0',
      description='MyProject',
      long_description=README + '\n\n' +  CHANGES,
      classifiers=[
        "Programming Language :: Python",
        "Framework :: Pylons",
        "Topic :: Internet :: WWW/HTTP",
        "Topic :: Internet :: WWW/HTTP :: WSGI :: Application",
        ],
      author='',
      author_email='',
      url='',
      keywords='web pyramid pylons',
      packages=find_packages(),
      include_package_data=True,
      zip_safe=False,
      install_requires=requires,
      tests_require=requires,
      test_suite="myproject",
      entry_points = """\
      [paste.app_factory]
      main = myproject:main
      """,
      paster_plugins=['pyramid'],
      )

Note that the entry_point line in setup.py points at a string which looks a lot like an .ini file. This string representation of an .ini file has a section named [paste.app_factory]. Within this section, there is a key named main (the entry point name) which has a value myproject:main. The key main is what our egg:MyProject#main value of the use section in our config file is pointing at, although it is actually shortened to egg:MyProject there. The value represents a dotted Python name path, which refers to a callable in our myproject package’s __init__.py module.

The egg: prefix in egg:MyProject indicates that this is an entry point URI specifier, where the “scheme” is “egg”. An “egg” is created when you run setup.py install or setup.py develop within your project.

In English, this entry point can thus be referred to as a “Paste application factory in the MyProject project which has the entry point named main where the entry point refers to a main function in the mypackage module”. Indeed, if you open up the __init__.py module generated within any scaffold-generated package, you’ll see a main function. This is the function called by PasteDeploy when the paster serve command is invoked against our application. It accepts a global configuration object and returns an instance of our application.

[DEFAULTS] Section of a PasteDeploy .ini File

You can add a [DEFAULT] section to your PasteDeploy .ini file. Such a section should consists of global parameters that are shared by all the applications, servers and middleware defined within the configuration file. The values in a [DEFAULT] section will be passed to your application’s main function as global_config (see the reference to the main function in __init__.py).

Table Of Contents

Previous topic

Logging

Next topic

Command-Line Pyramid