from collections import deque
from zope.interface import implementer
from zope.interface.interface import InterfaceClass
from webob import BaseRequest
from pyramid.interfaces import (
from pyramid.compat import (
from pyramid.decorator import reify
from pyramid.i18n import LocalizerRequestMixin
from pyramid.response import Response, _get_response_factory
from pyramid.security import (
from pyramid.url import URLMethodsMixin
from pyramid.util import (
def add_response_callback(self, callback):
Add a callback to the set of callbacks to be called by the
:term:`router` at a point after a :term:`response` object is
successfully created. :app:`Pyramid` does not have a
global response object: this functionality allows an
application to register an action to be performed against the
response once one is created.
A 'callback' is a callable which accepts two positional
parameters: ``request`` and ``response``. For example:
.. code-block:: python
def cache_callback(request, response):
'Set the cache_control max_age for the response'
response.cache_control.max_age = 360
Response callbacks are called in the order they're added
(first-to-most-recently-added). No response callback is
called if an exception happens in application code, or if the
response object returned by :term:`view` code is invalid.
All response callbacks are called *after* the tweens and
*before* the :class:`pyramid.events.NewResponse` event is sent.
Errors raised by callbacks are not handled specially. They
will be propagated to the caller of the :app:`Pyramid`
See also :ref:`using_response_callbacks`.
def _process_response_callbacks(self, response):
callbacks = self.response_callbacks
callback = callbacks.popleft()
def add_finished_callback(self, callback):
Add a callback to the set of callbacks to be called
unconditionally by the :term:`router` at the very end of
``callback`` is a callable which accepts a single positional
parameter: ``request``. For example:
.. code-block:: python
'''commit or abort the transaction associated with request'''
if request.exception is not None:
Finished callbacks are called in the order they're added (
first- to most-recently- added). Finished callbacks (unlike
response callbacks) are *always* called, even if an exception
happens in application code that prevents a response from
The set of finished callbacks associated with a request are
called *very late* in the processing of that request; they are
essentially the last thing called by the :term:`router`. They
are called after response processing has already occurred in a
top-level ``finally:`` block within the router request
processing code. As a result, mutations performed to the
``request`` provided to a finished callback will have no
meaningful effect, because response processing will have
already occurred, and the request's scope will expire almost
immediately after all finished callbacks have been processed.
Errors raised by finished callbacks are not handled specially.
They will be propagated to the caller of the :app:`Pyramid`
See also :ref:`using_finished_callbacks`.
callbacks = self.finished_callbacks
callback = callbacks.popleft()
A subclass of the :term:`WebOb` Request class. An instance of
this class is created by the :term:`router` and is provided to a
view callable (and to other subsystems) as the ``request``
The documentation below (save for the ``add_response_callback`` and
``add_finished_callback`` methods, which are defined in this subclass
itself, and the attributes ``context``, ``registry``, ``root``,
``subpath``, ``traversed``, ``view_name``, ``virtual_root`` , and
``virtual_root_path``, each of which is added to the request by the
:term:`router` at request ingress time) are autogenerated from the WebOb
source code used when this documentation was generated.
Due to technical constraints, we can't yet display the WebOb
version number from which this documentation is autogenerated, but
it will be the 'prevailing WebOb version' at the time of the
release of this :app:`Pyramid` version. See
http://webob.org/ for further information.
exception = None
exc_info = None
matchdict = None
matched_route = None
request_iface = IRequest
ResponseClass = Response
# docs-deprecated template context for Pylons-like apps; do not
def route_request_iface(name, bases=()):
# zope.interface treats the __name__ as the __doc__ and changes __name__
# to None for interfaces that contain spaces if you do not pass a
# nonempty __doc__ (insane); see
# zope.interface.interface.Element.__init__ and
# https://github.com/Pylons/pyramid/issues/232; as a result, always pass
# __doc__ to the InterfaceClass constructor.
iface = InterfaceClass('%s_IRequest' % name, bases=bases,
# for exception view lookups
iface.combined = InterfaceClass(
'%s_combined_IRequest' % name,
__doc__ = 'route_request_iface-generated combined interface')
def add_global_response_headers(request, headerlist):
def add_headers(request, response):
for k, v in headerlist:
def call_app_with_subpath_as_path_info(request, app):
# Copy the request. Use the source request's subpath (if it exists) as
# the new request's PATH_INFO. Set the request copy's SCRIPT_NAME to the
# prefix before the subpath. Call the application with the new request
# and return a response.
# - SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO are empty or start with /
# - At least one of SCRIPT_NAME or PATH_INFO are set.
# - SCRIPT_NAME is not '/' (it should be '', and PATH_INFO should
# be '/').
environ = request.environ
script_name = environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '')
path_info = environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/')
subpath = list(getattr(request, 'subpath', ()))
new_script_name = ''
# compute new_path_info
new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join([native_(x.encode('utf-8'), 'latin-1')
for x in subpath])
if new_path_info != '/': # don't want a sole double-slash
if path_info != '/': # if orig path_info is '/', we're already done
# readd trailing slash stripped by subpath (traversal)
new_path_info += '/'
# compute new_script_name
workback = (script_name + path_info).split('/')
tmp = 
if tmp == subpath:
el = workback.pop()
tmp.insert(0, text_(bytes_(el, 'latin-1'), 'utf-8'))
# strip all trailing slashes from workback to avoid appending undue slashes
# to end of script_name
while workback and (workback[-1] == ''):
workback = workback[:-1]
new_script_name = '/'.join(workback)
new_request = request.copy()
new_request.environ['SCRIPT_NAME'] = new_script_name
new_request.environ['PATH_INFO'] = new_path_info
[docs] def session(self):
""" Obtain the :term:`session` object associated with this
request. If a :term:`session factory` has not been registered
during application configuration, a
:class:`pyramid.exceptions.ConfigurationError` will be raised"""
factory = self.registry.queryUtility(ISessionFactory)
if factory is None:
'No session factory registered '
'(see the Sessions chapter of the Pyramid documentation)')
[docs] def response(self):
"""This attribute is actually a "reified" property which returns an
instance of the :class:`pyramid.response.Response`. class. The
response object returned does not exist until this attribute is
accessed. Subsequent accesses will return the same Response object.
The ``request.response`` API is used by renderers. A render obtains
the response object it will return from a view that uses that renderer
by accessing ``request.response``. Therefore, it's possible to use the
``request.response`` API to set up a response object with "the
right" attributes (e.g. by calling ``request.response.set_cookie()``)
within a view that uses a renderer. Mutations to this response object
will be preserved in the response sent to the client."""
response_factory = _get_response_factory(self.registry)
[docs] def is_response(self, ob):
""" Return ``True`` if the object passed as ``ob`` is a valid
response object, ``False`` otherwise."""
if ob.__class__ is Response:
registry = self.registry
adapted = registry.queryAdapterOrSelf(ob, IResponse)
if adapted is None:
return adapted is ob
return json.loads(text_(self.body, self.charset)) [docs]def apply_request_extensions(request, extensions=None):
"""Apply request extensions (methods and properties) to an instance of
:class:`pyramid.interfaces.IRequest`. This method is dependent on the
``request`` containing a properly initialized registry.
After invoking this method, the ``request`` should have the methods
and properties that were defined using
if extensions is None:
extensions = request.registry.queryUtility(IRequestExtensions)
if extensions is not None:
for name, fn in iteritems_(extensions.methods):
method = fn.__get__(request, request.__class__)
setattr(request, name, method)