Source code for pyramid.session

import base64
import binascii
import hashlib
import hmac
import os
import time

from zope.deprecation import deprecated
from zope.interface import implementer

from webob.cookies import SignedSerializer

from pyramid.compat import (
    pickle,
    PY2,
    text_,
    bytes_,
    native_,
    urlparse,
    )

from pyramid.exceptions import (
    BadCSRFOrigin,
    BadCSRFToken,
)
from pyramid.interfaces import ISession
from pyramid.settings import aslist
from pyramid.util import (
    is_same_domain,
    strings_differ,
)

def manage_accessed(wrapped):
    """ Decorator which causes a cookie to be renewed when an accessor
    method is called."""
    def accessed(session, *arg, **kw):
        session.accessed = now = int(time.time())
        if session._reissue_time is not None:
            if now - session.renewed > session._reissue_time:
                session.changed()
        return wrapped(session, *arg, **kw)
    accessed.__doc__ = wrapped.__doc__
    return accessed

def manage_changed(wrapped):
    """ Decorator which causes a cookie to be set when a setter method
    is called."""
    def changed(session, *arg, **kw):
        session.accessed = int(time.time())
        session.changed()
        return wrapped(session, *arg, **kw)
    changed.__doc__ = wrapped.__doc__
    return changed

[docs]def signed_serialize(data, secret): """ Serialize any pickleable structure (``data``) and sign it using the ``secret`` (must be a string). Return the serialization, which includes the signature as its first 40 bytes. The ``signed_deserialize`` method will deserialize such a value. This function is useful for creating signed cookies. For example: .. code-block:: python cookieval = signed_serialize({'a':1}, 'secret') response.set_cookie('signed_cookie', cookieval) """ pickled = pickle.dumps(data, pickle.HIGHEST_PROTOCOL) try: # bw-compat with pyramid <= 1.5b1 where latin1 is the default secret = bytes_(secret) except UnicodeEncodeError: secret = bytes_(secret, 'utf-8') sig = hmac.new(secret, pickled, hashlib.sha1).hexdigest() return sig + native_(base64.b64encode(pickled))
[docs]def signed_deserialize(serialized, secret, hmac=hmac): """ Deserialize the value returned from ``signed_serialize``. If the value cannot be deserialized for any reason, a :exc:`ValueError` exception will be raised. This function is useful for deserializing a signed cookie value created by ``signed_serialize``. For example: .. code-block:: python cookieval = request.cookies['signed_cookie'] data = signed_deserialize(cookieval, 'secret') """ # hmac parameterized only for unit tests try: input_sig, pickled = (bytes_(serialized[:40]), base64.b64decode(bytes_(serialized[40:]))) except (binascii.Error, TypeError) as e: # Badly formed data can make base64 die raise ValueError('Badly formed base64 data: %s' % e) try: # bw-compat with pyramid <= 1.5b1 where latin1 is the default secret = bytes_(secret) except UnicodeEncodeError: secret = bytes_(secret, 'utf-8') sig = bytes_(hmac.new(secret, pickled, hashlib.sha1).hexdigest()) # Avoid timing attacks (see # http://seb.dbzteam.org/crypto/python-oauth-timing-hmac.pdf) if strings_differ(sig, input_sig): raise ValueError('Invalid signature') return pickle.loads(pickled)
[docs]def check_csrf_origin(request, trusted_origins=None, raises=True): """ Check the Origin of the request to see if it is a cross site request or not. If the value supplied by the Origin or Referer header isn't one of the trusted origins and ``raises`` is ``True``, this function will raise a :exc:`pyramid.exceptions.BadCSRFOrigin` exception but if ``raises`` is ``False`` this function will return ``False`` instead. If the CSRF origin checks are successful this function will return ``True`` unconditionally. Additional trusted origins may be added by passing a list of domain (and ports if nonstandard like `['example.com', 'dev.example.com:8080']`) in with the ``trusted_origins`` parameter. If ``trusted_origins`` is ``None`` (the default) this list of additional domains will be pulled from the ``pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins`` setting. Note that this function will do nothing if request.scheme is not https. .. versionadded:: 1.7 """ def _fail(reason): if raises: raise BadCSRFOrigin(reason) else: return False if request.scheme == "https": # Suppose user visits http://example.com/ # An active network attacker (man-in-the-middle, MITM) sends a # POST form that targets https://example.com/detonate-bomb/ and # submits it via JavaScript. # # The attacker will need to provide a CSRF cookie and token, but # that's no problem for a MITM when we cannot make any assumptions # about what kind of session storage is being used. So the MITM can # circumvent the CSRF protection. This is true for any HTTP connection, # but anyone using HTTPS expects better! For this reason, for # https://example.com/ we need additional protection that treats # http://example.com/ as completely untrusted. Under HTTPS, # Barth et al. found that the Referer header is missing for # same-domain requests in only about 0.2% of cases or less, so # we can use strict Referer checking. # Determine the origin of this request origin = request.headers.get("Origin") if origin is None: origin = request.referrer # Fail if we were not able to locate an origin at all if not origin: return _fail("Origin checking failed - no Origin or Referer.") # Parse our origin so we we can extract the required information from # it. originp = urlparse.urlparse(origin) # Ensure that our Referer is also secure. if originp.scheme != "https": return _fail( "Referer checking failed - Referer is insecure while host is " "secure." ) # Determine which origins we trust, which by default will include the # current origin. if trusted_origins is None: trusted_origins = aslist( request.registry.settings.get( "pyramid.csrf_trusted_origins", []) ) if request.host_port not in set(["80", "443"]): trusted_origins.append("{0.domain}:{0.host_port}".format(request)) else: trusted_origins.append(request.domain) # Actually check to see if the request's origin matches any of our # trusted origins. if not any(is_same_domain(originp.netloc, host) for host in trusted_origins): reason = ( "Referer checking failed - {0} does not match any trusted " "origins." ) return _fail(reason.format(origin)) return True
[docs]def check_csrf_token(request, token='csrf_token', header='X-CSRF-Token', raises=True): """ Check the CSRF token in the request's session against the value in ``request.POST.get(token)`` (if a POST request) or ``request.headers.get(header)``. If a ``token`` keyword is not supplied to this function, the string ``csrf_token`` will be used to look up the token in ``request.POST``. If a ``header`` keyword is not supplied to this function, the string ``X-CSRF-Token`` will be used to look up the token in ``request.headers``. If the value supplied by post or by header doesn't match the value supplied by ``request.session.get_csrf_token()``, and ``raises`` is ``True``, this function will raise an :exc:`pyramid.exceptions.BadCSRFToken` exception. If the check does succeed and ``raises`` is ``False``, this function will return ``False``. If the CSRF check is successful, this function will return ``True`` unconditionally. Note that using this function requires that a :term:`session factory` is configured. See :ref:`auto_csrf_checking` for information about how to secure your application automatically against CSRF attacks. .. versionadded:: 1.4a2 .. versionchanged:: 1.7a1 A CSRF token passed in the query string of the request is no longer considered valid. It must be passed in either the request body or a header. """ supplied_token = "" # If this is a POST/PUT/etc request, then we'll check the body to see if it # has a token. We explicitly use request.POST here because CSRF tokens # should never appear in an URL as doing so is a security issue. We also # explicitly check for request.POST here as we do not support sending form # encoded data over anything but a request.POST. if token is not None: supplied_token = request.POST.get(token, "") # If we were unable to locate a CSRF token in a request body, then we'll # check to see if there are any headers that have a value for us. if supplied_token == "" and header is not None: supplied_token = request.headers.get(header, "") expected_token = request.session.get_csrf_token() if strings_differ(bytes_(expected_token), bytes_(supplied_token)): if raises: raise BadCSRFToken('check_csrf_token(): Invalid token') return False return True
[docs]class PickleSerializer(object): """ A serializer that uses the pickle protocol to dump Python data to bytes. This is the default serializer used by Pyramid. ``protocol`` may be specified to control the version of pickle used. Defaults to :attr:`pickle.HIGHEST_PROTOCOL`. """ def __init__(self, protocol=pickle.HIGHEST_PROTOCOL): self.protocol = protocol def loads(self, bstruct): """Accept bytes and return a Python object.""" return pickle.loads(bstruct) def dumps(self, appstruct): """Accept a Python object and return bytes.""" return pickle.dumps(appstruct, self.protocol)
[docs]def BaseCookieSessionFactory( serializer, cookie_name='session', max_age=None, path='/', domain=None, secure=False, httponly=False, timeout=1200, reissue_time=0, set_on_exception=True, ): """ .. versionadded:: 1.5 Configure a :term:`session factory` which will provide cookie-based sessions. The return value of this function is a :term:`session factory`, which may be provided as the ``session_factory`` argument of a :class:`pyramid.config.Configurator` constructor, or used as the ``session_factory`` argument of the :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.set_session_factory` method. The session factory returned by this function will create sessions which are limited to storing fewer than 4000 bytes of data (as the payload must fit into a single cookie). .. warning: This class provides no protection from tampering and is only intended to be used by framework authors to create their own cookie-based session factories. Parameters: ``serializer`` An object with two methods: ``loads`` and ``dumps``. The ``loads`` method should accept bytes and return a Python object. The ``dumps`` method should accept a Python object and return bytes. A ``ValueError`` should be raised for malformed inputs. ``cookie_name`` The name of the cookie used for sessioning. Default: ``'session'``. ``max_age`` The maximum age of the cookie used for sessioning (in seconds). Default: ``None`` (browser scope). ``path`` The path used for the session cookie. Default: ``'/'``. ``domain`` The domain used for the session cookie. Default: ``None`` (no domain). ``secure`` The 'secure' flag of the session cookie. Default: ``False``. ``httponly`` Hide the cookie from Javascript by setting the 'HttpOnly' flag of the session cookie. Default: ``False``. ``timeout`` A number of seconds of inactivity before a session times out. If ``None`` then the cookie never expires. This lifetime only applies to the *value* within the cookie. Meaning that if the cookie expires due to a lower ``max_age``, then this setting has no effect. Default: ``1200``. ``reissue_time`` The number of seconds that must pass before the cookie is automatically reissued as the result of a request which accesses the session. The duration is measured as the number of seconds since the last session cookie was issued and 'now'. If this value is ``0``, a new cookie will be reissued on every request accessing the session. If ``None`` then the cookie's lifetime will never be extended. A good rule of thumb: if you want auto-expired cookies based on inactivity: set the ``timeout`` value to 1200 (20 mins) and set the ``reissue_time`` value to perhaps a tenth of the ``timeout`` value (120 or 2 mins). It's nonsensical to set the ``timeout`` value lower than the ``reissue_time`` value, as the ticket will never be reissued. However, such a configuration is not explicitly prevented. Default: ``0``. ``set_on_exception`` If ``True``, set a session cookie even if an exception occurs while rendering a view. Default: ``True``. .. versionadded: 1.5a3 """ @implementer(ISession) class CookieSession(dict): """ Dictionary-like session object """ # configuration parameters _cookie_name = cookie_name _cookie_max_age = max_age if max_age is None else int(max_age) _cookie_path = path _cookie_domain = domain _cookie_secure = secure _cookie_httponly = httponly _cookie_on_exception = set_on_exception _timeout = timeout if timeout is None else int(timeout) _reissue_time = reissue_time if reissue_time is None else int(reissue_time) # dirty flag _dirty = False def __init__(self, request): self.request = request now = time.time() created = renewed = now new = True value = None state = {} cookieval = request.cookies.get(self._cookie_name) if cookieval is not None: try: value = serializer.loads(bytes_(cookieval)) except ValueError: # the cookie failed to deserialize, dropped value = None if value is not None: try: # since the value is not necessarily signed, we have # to unpack it a little carefully rval, cval, sval = value renewed = float(rval) created = float(cval) state = sval new = False except (TypeError, ValueError): # value failed to unpack properly or renewed was not # a numeric type so we'll fail deserialization here state = {} if self._timeout is not None: if now - renewed > self._timeout: # expire the session because it was not renewed # before the timeout threshold state = {} self.created = created self.accessed = renewed self.renewed = renewed self.new = new dict.__init__(self, state) # ISession methods def changed(self): if not self._dirty: self._dirty = True def set_cookie_callback(request, response): self._set_cookie(response) self.request = None # explicitly break cycle for gc self.request.add_response_callback(set_cookie_callback) def invalidate(self): self.clear() # XXX probably needs to unset cookie # non-modifying dictionary methods get = manage_accessed(dict.get) __getitem__ = manage_accessed(dict.__getitem__) items = manage_accessed(dict.items) values = manage_accessed(dict.values) keys = manage_accessed(dict.keys) __contains__ = manage_accessed(dict.__contains__) __len__ = manage_accessed(dict.__len__) __iter__ = manage_accessed(dict.__iter__) if PY2: iteritems = manage_accessed(dict.iteritems) itervalues = manage_accessed(dict.itervalues) iterkeys = manage_accessed(dict.iterkeys) has_key = manage_accessed(dict.has_key) # modifying dictionary methods clear = manage_changed(dict.clear) update = manage_changed(dict.update) setdefault = manage_changed(dict.setdefault) pop = manage_changed(dict.pop) popitem = manage_changed(dict.popitem) __setitem__ = manage_changed(dict.__setitem__) __delitem__ = manage_changed(dict.__delitem__) # flash API methods @manage_changed def flash(self, msg, queue='', allow_duplicate=True): storage = self.setdefault('_f_' + queue, []) if allow_duplicate or (msg not in storage): storage.append(msg) @manage_changed def pop_flash(self, queue=''): storage = self.pop('_f_' + queue, []) return storage @manage_accessed def peek_flash(self, queue=''): storage = self.get('_f_' + queue, []) return storage # CSRF API methods @manage_changed def new_csrf_token(self): token = text_(binascii.hexlify(os.urandom(20))) self['_csrft_'] = token return token @manage_accessed def get_csrf_token(self): token = self.get('_csrft_', None) if token is None: token = self.new_csrf_token() return token # non-API methods def _set_cookie(self, response): if not self._cookie_on_exception: exception = getattr(self.request, 'exception', None) if exception is not None: # dont set a cookie during exceptions return False cookieval = native_(serializer.dumps( (self.accessed, self.created, dict(self)) )) if len(cookieval) > 4064: raise ValueError( 'Cookie value is too long to store (%s bytes)' % len(cookieval) ) response.set_cookie( self._cookie_name, value=cookieval, max_age=self._cookie_max_age, path=self._cookie_path, domain=self._cookie_domain, secure=self._cookie_secure, httponly=self._cookie_httponly, ) return True return CookieSession
[docs]def UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig( secret, timeout=1200, cookie_name='session', cookie_max_age=None, cookie_path='/', cookie_domain=None, cookie_secure=False, cookie_httponly=False, cookie_on_exception=True, signed_serialize=signed_serialize, signed_deserialize=signed_deserialize, ): """ .. deprecated:: 1.5 Use :func:`pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory` instead. Caveat: Cookies generated using ``SignedCookieSessionFactory`` are not compatible with cookies generated using ``UnencryptedCookieSessionFactory``, so existing user session data will be destroyed if you switch to it. Configure a :term:`session factory` which will provide unencrypted (but signed) cookie-based sessions. The return value of this function is a :term:`session factory`, which may be provided as the ``session_factory`` argument of a :class:`pyramid.config.Configurator` constructor, or used as the ``session_factory`` argument of the :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.set_session_factory` method. The session factory returned by this function will create sessions which are limited to storing fewer than 4000 bytes of data (as the payload must fit into a single cookie). Parameters: ``secret`` A string which is used to sign the cookie. ``timeout`` A number of seconds of inactivity before a session times out. ``cookie_name`` The name of the cookie used for sessioning. ``cookie_max_age`` The maximum age of the cookie used for sessioning (in seconds). Default: ``None`` (browser scope). ``cookie_path`` The path used for the session cookie. ``cookie_domain`` The domain used for the session cookie. Default: ``None`` (no domain). ``cookie_secure`` The 'secure' flag of the session cookie. ``cookie_httponly`` The 'httpOnly' flag of the session cookie. ``cookie_on_exception`` If ``True``, set a session cookie even if an exception occurs while rendering a view. ``signed_serialize`` A callable which takes more or less arbitrary Python data structure and a secret and returns a signed serialization in bytes. Default: ``signed_serialize`` (using pickle). ``signed_deserialize`` A callable which takes a signed and serialized data structure in bytes and a secret and returns the original data structure if the signature is valid. Default: ``signed_deserialize`` (using pickle). """ class SerializerWrapper(object): def __init__(self, secret): self.secret = secret def loads(self, bstruct): return signed_deserialize(bstruct, secret) def dumps(self, appstruct): return signed_serialize(appstruct, secret) serializer = SerializerWrapper(secret) return BaseCookieSessionFactory( serializer, cookie_name=cookie_name, max_age=cookie_max_age, path=cookie_path, domain=cookie_domain, secure=cookie_secure, httponly=cookie_httponly, timeout=timeout, reissue_time=0, # to keep session.accessed == session.renewed set_on_exception=cookie_on_exception, )
deprecated( 'UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig', 'The UnencryptedCookieSessionFactoryConfig callable is deprecated as of ' 'Pyramid 1.5. Use ``pyramid.session.SignedCookieSessionFactory`` instead.' ' Caveat: Cookies generated using SignedCookieSessionFactory are not ' 'compatible with cookies generated using UnencryptedCookieSessionFactory, ' 'so existing user session data will be destroyed if you switch to it.' )
[docs]def SignedCookieSessionFactory( secret, cookie_name='session', max_age=None, path='/', domain=None, secure=False, httponly=False, set_on_exception=True, timeout=1200, reissue_time=0, hashalg='sha512', salt='pyramid.session.', serializer=None, ): """ .. versionadded:: 1.5 Configure a :term:`session factory` which will provide signed cookie-based sessions. The return value of this function is a :term:`session factory`, which may be provided as the ``session_factory`` argument of a :class:`pyramid.config.Configurator` constructor, or used as the ``session_factory`` argument of the :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.set_session_factory` method. The session factory returned by this function will create sessions which are limited to storing fewer than 4000 bytes of data (as the payload must fit into a single cookie). Parameters: ``secret`` A string which is used to sign the cookie. The secret should be at least as long as the block size of the selected hash algorithm. For ``sha512`` this would mean a 128 bit (64 character) secret. It should be unique within the set of secret values provided to Pyramid for its various subsystems (see :ref:`admonishment_against_secret_sharing`). ``hashalg`` The HMAC digest algorithm to use for signing. The algorithm must be supported by the :mod:`hashlib` library. Default: ``'sha512'``. ``salt`` A namespace to avoid collisions between different uses of a shared secret. Reusing a secret for different parts of an application is strongly discouraged (see :ref:`admonishment_against_secret_sharing`). Default: ``'pyramid.session.'``. ``cookie_name`` The name of the cookie used for sessioning. Default: ``'session'``. ``max_age`` The maximum age of the cookie used for sessioning (in seconds). Default: ``None`` (browser scope). ``path`` The path used for the session cookie. Default: ``'/'``. ``domain`` The domain used for the session cookie. Default: ``None`` (no domain). ``secure`` The 'secure' flag of the session cookie. Default: ``False``. ``httponly`` Hide the cookie from Javascript by setting the 'HttpOnly' flag of the session cookie. Default: ``False``. ``timeout`` A number of seconds of inactivity before a session times out. If ``None`` then the cookie never expires. This lifetime only applies to the *value* within the cookie. Meaning that if the cookie expires due to a lower ``max_age``, then this setting has no effect. Default: ``1200``. ``reissue_time`` The number of seconds that must pass before the cookie is automatically reissued as the result of accessing the session. The duration is measured as the number of seconds since the last session cookie was issued and 'now'. If this value is ``0``, a new cookie will be reissued on every request accessing the session. If ``None`` then the cookie's lifetime will never be extended. A good rule of thumb: if you want auto-expired cookies based on inactivity: set the ``timeout`` value to 1200 (20 mins) and set the ``reissue_time`` value to perhaps a tenth of the ``timeout`` value (120 or 2 mins). It's nonsensical to set the ``timeout`` value lower than the ``reissue_time`` value, as the ticket will never be reissued. However, such a configuration is not explicitly prevented. Default: ``0``. ``set_on_exception`` If ``True``, set a session cookie even if an exception occurs while rendering a view. Default: ``True``. ``serializer`` An object with two methods: ``loads`` and ``dumps``. The ``loads`` method should accept bytes and return a Python object. The ``dumps`` method should accept a Python object and return bytes. A ``ValueError`` should be raised for malformed inputs. If a serializer is not passed, the :class:`pyramid.session.PickleSerializer` serializer will be used. .. versionadded: 1.5a3 """ if serializer is None: serializer = PickleSerializer() signed_serializer = SignedSerializer( secret, salt, hashalg, serializer=serializer, ) return BaseCookieSessionFactory( signed_serializer, cookie_name=cookie_name, max_age=max_age, path=path, domain=domain, secure=secure, httponly=httponly, timeout=timeout, reissue_time=reissue_time, set_on_exception=set_on_exception, )