pyramid.interfaces

Other Interfaces

interface IAuthenticationPolicy[source]

An object representing a Pyramid authentication policy.

effective_principals(request)

Return a sequence representing the effective principals typically including the userid and any groups belonged to by the current user, always including 'system' groups such as pyramid.security.Everyone and pyramid.security.Authenticated.

unauthenticated_userid(request)

Return the unauthenticated userid. This method performs the same duty as authenticated_userid but is permitted to return the userid based only on data present in the request; it needn't (and shouldn't) check any persistent store to ensure that the user record related to the request userid exists.

This method is intended primarily a helper to assist the authenticated_userid method in pulling credentials out of the request data, abstracting away the specific headers, query strings, etc that are used to authenticate the request.

authenticated_userid(request)

Return the authenticated userid or None if no authenticated userid can be found. This method of the policy should ensure that a record exists in whatever persistent store is used related to the user (the user should not have been deleted); if a record associated with the current id does not exist in a persistent store, it should return None.

forget(request)

Return a set of headers suitable for 'forgetting' the current user on subsequent requests.

remember(request, userid, **kw)

Return a set of headers suitable for 'remembering' the userid named userid when set in a response. An individual authentication policy and its consumers can decide on the composition and meaning of **kw.

interface IAuthorizationPolicy[source]

An object representing a Pyramid authorization policy.

permits(context, principals, permission)

Return True if any of the principals is allowed the permission in the current context, else return False

principals_allowed_by_permission(context, permission)

Return a set of principal identifiers allowed by the permission in context. This behavior is optional; if you choose to not implement it you should define this method as something which raises a NotImplementedError. This method will only be called when the pyramid.security.principals_allowed_by_permission API is used.

interface IExceptionResponse[source]

Extends: pyramid.interfaces.IException, pyramid.interfaces.IResponse

An interface representing a WSGI response which is also an exception object. Register an exception view using this interface as a context to apply the registered view for all exception types raised by Pyramid internally (any exception that inherits from pyramid.response.Response, including pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPNotFound and pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPForbidden).

prepare(environ)

Prepares the response for being called as a WSGI application

interface IRoute[source]

Interface representing the type of object returned from IRoutesMapper.get_route

match(path)

If the path passed to this function can be matched by the pattern of this route, return a dictionary (the 'matchdict'), which will contain keys representing the dynamic segment markers in the pattern mapped to values extracted from the provided path.

If the path passed to this function cannot be matched by the pattern of this route, return None.

generate(kw)

Generate a URL based on filling in the dynamic segment markers in the pattern using the kw dictionary provided.

factory

The root factory used by the Pyramid router when this route matches (or None)

pregenerator

This attribute should either be None or a callable object implementing the IRoutePregenerator interface

name

The route name

predicates

A sequence of route predicate objects used to determine if a request matches this route or not after basic pattern matching has been completed.

pattern

The route pattern

interface IRoutePregenerator[source]
__call__(request, elements, kw)

A pregenerator is a function associated by a developer with a route. The pregenerator for a route is called by pyramid.request.Request.route_url() in order to adjust the set of arguments passed to it by the user for special purposes, such as Pylons 'subdomain' support. It will influence the URL returned by route_url.

A pregenerator should return a two-tuple of (elements, kw) after examining the originals passed to this function, which are the arguments (request, elements, kw). The simplest pregenerator is:

def pregenerator(request, elements, kw):
    return elements, kw

You can employ a pregenerator by passing a pregenerator argument to the pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route() function.

interface ISession[source]

Extends: pyramid.interfaces.IDict

An interface representing a session (a web session object, usually accessed via request.session.

Keys and values of a session must be pickleable.

created

Integer representing Epoch time when created.

flash(msg, queue='', allow_duplicate=True)

Push a flash message onto the end of the flash queue represented by queue. An alternate flash message queue can used by passing an optional queue, which must be a string. If allow_duplicate is false, if the msg already exists in the queue, it will not be re-added.

invalidate()

Invalidate the session. The action caused by invalidate is implementation-dependent, but it should have the effect of completely dissociating any data stored in the session with the current request. It might set response values (such as one which clears a cookie), or it might not.

An invalidated session may be used after the call to invalidate with the effect that a new session is created to store the data. This enables workflows requiring an entirely new session, such as in the case of changing privilege levels or preventing fixation attacks.

new

Boolean attribute. If True, the session is new.

get_csrf_token()

Return a random cross-site request forgery protection token. It will be a string. If a token was previously added to the session via new_csrf_token, that token will be returned. If no CSRF token was previously set into the session, new_csrf_token will be called, which will create and set a token, and this token will be returned.

changed()

Mark the session as changed. A user of a session should call this method after he or she mutates a mutable object that is a value of the session (it should not be required after mutating the session itself). For example, if the user has stored a dictionary in the session under the key foo, and he or she does session['foo'] = {}, changed() needn't be called. However, if subsequently he or she does session['foo']['a'] = 1, changed() must be called for the sessioning machinery to notice the mutation of the internal dictionary.

new_csrf_token()

Create and set into the session a new, random cross-site request forgery protection token. Return the token. It will be a string.

pop_flash(queue='')

Pop a queue from the flash storage. The queue is removed from flash storage after this message is called. The queue is returned; it is a list of flash messages added by pyramid.interfaces.ISession.flash()

peek_flash(queue='')

Peek at a queue in the flash storage. The queue remains in flash storage after this message is called. The queue is returned; it is a list of flash messages added by pyramid.interfaces.ISession.flash()

interface ISessionFactory[source]

An interface representing a factory which accepts a request object and returns an ISession object

__call__(request)

Return an ISession object

interface IRendererInfo[source]

An object implementing this interface is passed to every renderer factory constructor as its only argument (conventionally named info)

registry

The "current" application registry when the renderer was created

package

The "current package" when the renderer configuration statement was found

name

The value passed by the user as the renderer name

type

The renderer type name

settings

The deployment settings dictionary related to the current application

clone()

Return a shallow copy that does not share any mutable state.

interface IRendererFactory[source]
__call__(info)

Return an object that implements pyramid.interfaces.IRenderer. info is an object that implements pyramid.interfaces.IRendererInfo.

interface IRenderer[source]
__call__(value, system)

Call the renderer with the result of the view (value) passed in and return a result (a string or unicode object useful as a response body). Values computed by the system are passed by the system in the system parameter, which is a dictionary. Keys in the dictionary include: view (the view callable that returned the value), renderer_name (the template name or simple name of the renderer), context (the context object passed to the view), and request (the request object passed to the view).

interface IRequestFactory[source]

A utility which generates a request

__call__(environ)

Return an instance of pyramid.request.Request

blank(path)

Return an empty request object (see pyramid.request.Request.blank())

interface IResponseFactory[source]

A utility which generates a response

__call__(request)

Return a response object implementing IResponse, e.g. pyramid.response.Response). It should handle the case when request is None.

interface IViewMapperFactory[source]
__call__(self, **kw)

Return an object which implements pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapper. kw will be a dictionary containing view-specific arguments, such as permission, predicates, attr, renderer, and other items. An IViewMapperFactory is used by pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view() to provide a plugpoint to extension developers who want to modify potential view callable invocation signatures and response values.

interface IViewMapper[source]
__call__(self, object)

Provided with an arbitrary object (a function, class, or instance), returns a callable with the call signature (context, request). The callable returned should itself return a Response object. An IViewMapper is returned by pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapperFactory.

interface IDict[source]
pop(k, default=None)

Pop the key k from the dictionary and return its value. If k doesn't exist, and default is provided, return the default. If k doesn't exist and default is not provided, raise a KeyError.

values()

Return a list of values from the dictionary

keys()

Return a list of keys from the dictionary

__setitem__(k, value)

Set a key/value pair into the dictionary

items()

Return a list of [(k,v)] pairs from the dictionary

__iter__()

Return an iterator over the keys of this dictionary

setdefault(k, default=None)

Return the existing value for key k in the dictionary. If no value with k exists in the dictionary, set the default value into the dictionary under the k name passed. If a value already existed in the dictionary, return it. If a value did not exist in the dictionary, return the default

clear()

Clear all values from the dictionary

__contains__(k)

Return True if key k exists in the dictionary.

__delitem__(k)

Delete an item from the dictionary which is passed to the renderer as the renderer globals dictionary.

get(k, default=None)

Return the value for key k from the renderer dictionary, or the default if no such value exists.

update(d)

Update the renderer dictionary with another dictionary d.

popitem()

Pop the item with key k from the dictionary and return it as a two-tuple (k, v). If k doesn't exist, raise a KeyError.

__getitem__(k)

Return the value for key k from the dictionary or raise a KeyError if the key doesn't exist

interface IMultiDict[source]

Extends: pyramid.interfaces.IDict

An ordered dictionary that can have multiple values for each key. A multidict adds the methods getall, getone, mixed, extend, add, and dict_of_lists to the normal dictionary interface. A multidict data structure is used as request.POST, request.GET, and request.params within an Pyramid application.

getone(key)

Get one value matching the key, raising a KeyError if multiple values were found.

getall(key)

Return a list of all values matching the key (may be an empty list)

extend(other=None, **kwargs)

Add a set of keys and values, not overwriting any previous values. The other structure may be a list of two-tuples or a dictionary. If **kwargs is passed, its value will overwrite existing values.

add(key, value)

Add the key and value, not overwriting any previous value.

mixed()

Returns a dictionary where the values are either single values, or a list of values when a key/value appears more than once in this dictionary. This is similar to the kind of dictionary often used to represent the variables in a web request.

dict_of_lists()

Returns a dictionary where each key is associated with a list of values.

interface IResponse[source]

Represents a WSGI response using the WebOb response interface. Some attribute and method documentation of this interface references RFC 2616.

This interface is most famously implemented by pyramid.response.Response and the HTTP exception classes in pyramid.httpexceptions.

request

Return the request associated with this response if any.

content_length

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-Length header. For more information on Content-Length see RFC 2616 section 14.17. Converts using int.

pragma

Gets and sets and deletes the Pragma header. For more information on Pragma see RFC 2616 section 14.32.

vary

Gets and sets and deletes the Vary header. For more information on Vary see section 14.44. Converts using list.

content_type

Get/set the Content-Type header (or None), without the charset or any parameters. If you include parameters (or ; at all) when setting the content_type, any existing parameters will be deleted; otherwise they will be preserved.

status

The status string.

body_file

A file-like object that can be used to write to the body. If you passed in a list app_iter, that app_iter will be modified by writes.

content_language

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-Language header. Converts using list. For more information about Content-Language see RFC 2616 section 14.12.

content_encoding

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-Encoding header. For more information about Content-Encoding see RFC 2616 section 14.11.

Unset a cookie with the given name (remove it from the response).

server

Gets and sets and deletes the Server header. For more information on Server see RFC216 section 14.38.

etag

Gets and sets and deletes the ETag header. For more information on ETag see RFC 2616 section 14.19. Converts using Entity tag.

md5_etag(body=None, set_content_md5=False)

Generate an etag for the response object using an MD5 hash of the body (the body parameter, or self.body if not given). Sets self.etag. If set_content_md5 is True sets self.content_md5 as well

content_location

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-Location header. For more information on Content-Location see RFC 2616 section 14.14.

location

Gets and sets and deletes the Location header. For more information on Location see RFC 2616 section 14.30.

unicode_body

Get/set the unicode value of the body (using the charset of the Content-Type)

retry_after

Gets and sets and deletes the Retry-After header. For more information on Retry-After see RFC 2616 section 14.37. Converts using HTTP date or delta seconds.

content_md5

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-MD5 header. For more information on Content-MD5 see RFC 2616 section 14.14.

headers

The headers in a dictionary-like object

encode_content(encoding='gzip', lazy=False)

Encode the content with the given encoding (only gzip and identity are supported).

app_iter

Returns the app_iter of the response.

If body was set, this will create an app_iter from that body (a single-item list)

app_iter_range(start, stop)

Return a new app_iter built from the response app_iter that serves up only the given start:stop range.

allow

Gets and sets and deletes the Allow header. Converts using list. For more information on Allow see RFC 2616, Section 14.7.

body

The body of the response, as a str. This will read in the entire app_iter if necessary.

cache_expires

Get/set the Cache-Control and Expires headers. This sets the response to expire in the number of seconds passed when set.

RequestClass

Alias for pyramid.request.Request

age

Gets and sets and deletes the Age header. Converts using int. For more information on Age see RFC 2616, section 14.6.

content_range

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-Range header. For more information on Content-Range see section 14.16. Converts using ContentRange object.

Delete a cookie from the client. Note that path and domain must match how the cookie was originally set. This sets the cookie to the empty string, and max_age=0 so that it should expire immediately.

accept_ranges

Gets and sets and deletes the Accept-Ranges header. For more information on Accept-Ranges see RFC 2616, section 14.5

content_disposition

Gets and sets and deletes the Content-Disposition header. For more information on Content-Disposition see RFC 2616 section 19.5.1.

content_type_params

A dictionary of all the parameters in the content type. This is not a view, set to change, modifications of the dict would not be applied otherwise.

copy()

Makes a copy of the response and returns the copy.

expires

Gets and sets and deletes the Expires header. For more information on Expires see RFC 2616 section 14.21. Converts using HTTP date.

charset

Get/set the charset (in the Content-Type)

status_int

The status as an integer

Set (add) a cookie for the response

merge_cookies(resp)

Merge the cookies that were set on this response with the given resp object (which can be any WSGI application). If the resp is a webob.Response object, then the other object will be modified in-place.

date

Gets and sets and deletes the Date header. For more information on Date see RFC 2616 section 14.18. Converts using HTTP date.

last_modified

Gets and sets and deletes the Last-Modified header. For more information on Last-Modified see RFC 2616 section 14.29. Converts using HTTP date.

__call__(environ, start_response)

WSGI call interface, should call the start_response callback and should return an iterable

headerlist

The list of response headers.

environ

Get/set the request environ associated with this response, if any.

conditional_response_app(environ, start_response)

Like the normal __call__ interface, but checks conditional headers:

  • If-Modified-Since (304 Not Modified; only on GET, HEAD)
  • If-None-Match (304 Not Modified; only on GET, HEAD)
  • Range (406 Partial Content; only on GET, HEAD)
www_authenticate

Gets and sets and deletes the WWW-Authenticate header. For more information on WWW-Authenticate see RFC 2616 section 14.47. Converts using 'parse_auth' and 'serialize_auth'.

cache_control

Get/set/modify the Cache-Control header (RFC 2616 section 14.9)

interface IIntrospectable[source]

An introspectable object used for configuration introspection. In addition to the methods below, objects which implement this interface must also implement all the methods of Python's collections.MutableMapping (the "dictionary interface"), and must be hashable.

relate(category_name, discriminator)

Indicate an intent to relate this IIntrospectable with another IIntrospectable (the one associated with the category_name and discriminator) during action execution.

unrelate(category_name, discriminator)

Indicate an intent to break the relationship between this IIntrospectable with another IIntrospectable (the one associated with the category_name and discriminator) during action execution.

action_info

An IActionInfo object representing the caller that invoked the creation of this introspectable (usually a sentinel until updated during self.register)

__hash__()

Introspectables must be hashable. The typical implementation of an introsepectable's __hash__ is:

return hash((self.category_name,) + (self.discriminator,))
title

Text title describing this introspectable

discriminator

introspectable discriminator (within category) (must be hashable)

type_name

Text type name describing this introspectable

category_name

introspection category name

register(introspector, action_info)

Register this IIntrospectable with an introspector. This method is invoked during action execution. Adds the introspectable and its relations to the introspector. introspector should be an object implementing IIntrospector. action_info should be a object implementing the interface pyramid.interfaces.IActionInfo representing the call that registered this introspectable. Pseudocode for an implementation of this method:

def register(self, introspector, action_info):
    self.action_info = action_info
    introspector.add(self)
    for methodname, category_name, discriminator in self._relations:
        method = getattr(introspector, methodname)
        method((i.category_name, i.discriminator),
               (category_name, discriminator))
order

integer order in which registered with introspector (managed by introspector, usually)

discriminator_hash

an integer hash of the discriminator

interface IIntrospector[source]
categorized(sort_key=None)

Get a sequence of tuples in the form [(category_name, [{'introspectable':IIntrospectable, 'related':[sequence of related IIntrospectables]}, ...])] representing all known introspectables. If sort_key is None, each introspectables sequence will be returned in the order the introspectables were added to the introspector. Otherwise, sort_key should be a function that accepts an IIntrospectable and returns a value from it (ala the key function of Python's sorted callable).

relate(*pairs)

Given any number of (category_name, discriminator) pairs passed as positional arguments, relate the associated introspectables to each other. The introspectable related to each pair must have already been added via .add or .add_intr; a KeyError will result if this is not true. An error will not be raised if any pair has already been associated with another.

This method is not typically called directly, instead it's called indirectly by pyramid.interfaces.IIntrospector.register()

unrelate(*pairs)

Given any number of (category_name, discriminator) pairs passed as positional arguments, unrelate the associated introspectables from each other. The introspectable related to each pair must have already been added via .add or .add_intr; a KeyError will result if this is not true. An error will not be raised if any pair is not already related to another.

This method is not typically called directly, instead it's called indirectly by pyramid.interfaces.IIntrospector.register()

categories()

Return a sorted sequence of category names known by this introspector

get_category(category_name, default=None, sort_key=None)

Get a sequence of dictionaries in the form [{'introspectable':IIntrospectable, 'related':[sequence of related IIntrospectables]}, ...] where each introspectable is part of the category associated with category_name .

If the category named category_name does not exist in the introspector the value passed as default will be returned.

If sort_key is None, the sequence will be returned in the order the introspectables were added to the introspector. Otherwise, sort_key should be a function that accepts an IIntrospectable and returns a value from it (ala the key function of Python's sorted callable).

related(intr)

Return a sequence of IIntrospectables related to the IIntrospectable intr. Return the empty sequence if no relations for exist.

remove(category_name, discriminator)

Remove the IIntrospectable related to category_name and discriminator from the introspector, and fix up any relations that the introspectable participates in. This method will not raise an error if an introspectable related to the category name and discriminator does not exist.

get(category_name, discriminator, default=None)

Get the IIntrospectable related to the category_name and the discriminator (or discriminator hash) discriminator. If it does not exist in the introspector, return the value of default

add(intr)

Add the IIntrospectable intr (use instead of pyramid.interfaces.IIntrospector.add() when you have a custom IIntrospectable). Replaces any existing introspectable registered using the same category/discriminator.

This method is not typically called directly, instead it's called indirectly by pyramid.interfaces.IIntrospector.register()

interface IActionInfo[source]

Class which provides code introspection capability associated with an action. The ParserInfo class used by ZCML implements the same interface.

line

Starting line number in file (as an integer) of action-invoking code.This will be None if the value could not be determined.

__str__()

Return a representation of the action information (including source code from file, if possible)

file

Filename of action-invoking code as a string

interface IAssetDescriptor[source]

Describes an asset.

stream()

Returns an input stream for reading asset contents. Raises an exception if the asset is a directory or does not exist.

absspec()

Returns the absolute asset specification for this asset (e.g. mypackage:templates/foo.pt).

abspath()

Returns an absolute path in the filesystem to the asset.

listdir()

Returns iterable of filenames of directory contents. Raises an exception if asset is not a directory.

isdir()

Returns True if the asset is a directory, otherwise returns False.

exists()

Returns True if asset exists, otherwise returns False.

interface IResourceURL[source]
virtual_path_tuple

The virtual url path of the resource as a tuple. (New in 1.5)

physical_path_tuple

The physical url path of the resource as a tuple. (New in 1.5)

virtual_path

The virtual url path of the resource as a string.

physical_path

The physical url path of the resource as a string.

interface ICacheBuster[source]

A cache buster modifies the URL generation machinery for static_url(). See Cache Busting.

New in version 1.6.

__call__(request, subpath, kw)

Modifies a subpath and/or keyword arguments from which a static asset URL will be computed during URL generation.

The subpath argument is a path of /-delimited segments that represent the portion of the asset URL which is used to find the asset. The kw argument is a dict of keywords that are to be passed eventually to static_url() for URL generation. The return value should be a two-tuple of (subpath, kw) where subpath is the relative URL from where the file is served and kw is the same input argument. The return value should be modified to include the cache bust token in the generated URL.

The kw dictionary contains extra arguments passed to static_url() as well as some extra items that may be usful including:

The pathspec and rawspec values are only different in cases where an asset has been mounted into a virtual location using pyramid.config.Configurator.override_asset(). For example, with a call to request.static_url('myapp:static/foo.png'), the ``pathspec is myapp:static/foo.png whereas the rawspec may be themepkg:bar.png, assuming a call to config.override_asset('myapp:static/foo.png', 'themepkg:bar.png').

interface IViewDeriver[source]
options

A list of supported options to be passed to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view(). This attribute is optional.

__call__(view, info)

Derive a new view from the supplied view.

View options, package information and registry are available on info, an instance of pyramid.interfaces.IViewDeriverInfo.

The view is a callable accepting (context, request).

interface IViewDeriverInfo[source]

An object implementing this interface is passed to every view deriver during configuration.

registry

The "current" application registry where the view was created

package

The "current package" where the view configuration statement was found

options

The view options passed to the view, including any default values that were not overriden

settings

The deployment settings dictionary related to the current application

predicates

The list of predicates active on the view

original_view

The original view object being wrapped