ZEO is an extension to ZODB which allows more than one process to simultaneously communicate with a ZODB storage. Making a ZODB database accessible to more than one process means that you can debug your application objects at the same time that a Pyramid server that accesses the database is running, and will also allow your application to run under multiprocess configurations, such as those exposed by mod_wsgi.
The easiest way to get started with ZODB in a Pyramid application is to use the ZODB pyramid_zodb paster template. However, the Paster template does not set up a ZEO-capable application. This chapter shows you how to do that “from scratch”.
Edit your Pyramid application’s setup.py file, adding the following packages to the install_requires of the application:
For example, the relevant portion of your application’s setup.py file might look like so when you’re finished adding the dependencies:
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setup( # ... other elements left out for brevity install_requires=[ 'pyramid', 'repoze.folder', 'repoze.retry', 'repoze.tm2', 'repoze.zodbconn', ], # ... other elements left out for brevity )
Rerun your application’s setup.py file (e.g. using python setup.py develop) to get these packages installed. A number of packages will be installed, including ZODB. For the purposes of this tutorial, we’ll assume that your “application” is actually just the result of the pyramid_starter Paster template.
Edit your application’s Paste development.ini file.
If you already have an app section in the .ini file named main, rename this section to myapp (e.g. app:main -> app:myapp). Add a key to it named zodb_uri, e.g.
[app:myapp] use = egg:myapp#app zodb_uri = zeo://%(here)s/zeo.sock reload_templates = true debug_authorization = false debug_notfound = false
If a pipeline named main does not already exist in the paste .ini file , add a pipeline section named main. Put the names connector, egg:repoze.retry#retry, and egg:repoze.tm2#tm to the top of the pipeline.
[pipeline:main] pipeline = egg:repoze.retry#retry egg:repoze.tm2#tm myapp
When you’re finished, your .ini file might look like so:
[DEFAULT] debug = true [app:myapp] use = egg:myapp#app zodb_uri = zeo://%(here)s/zeo.sock reload_templates = true debug_authorization = false debug_notfound = false [pipeline:main] pipeline = egg:repoze.retry#retry egg:repoze.tm2#tm myapp [server:main] use = egg:Paste#http host = 0.0.0.0 port = 6543
See development.ini for more information about project Paste .ini files.
Add a zeo.conf file to your package with the following contents:
%define INSTANCE . <zeo> address $INSTANCE/zeo.sock read-only false invalidation-queue-size 100 pid-filename $INSTANCE/zeo.pid </zeo> <blobstorage 1> <filestorage> path $INSTANCE/myapp.db </filestorage> blob-dir $INSTANCE/blobs </blobstorage>
For the purposes of this tutorial we’ll assume that you want your Pyramid application’s root object to be a “folderish” object. To achieve this, change your application’s models.py file to look like the below:
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from repoze.folder import Folder class MyModel(Folder): pass def appmaker(root): if not 'myapp' in root: root['myapp'] = MyModel() transaction.commit() return root['myapp']
Change your application’s __init__.py to look something like the below:
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from pyramid.config import Configurator from repoze.zodbconn.finder import PersistentApplicationFinder from myapp.models import appmaker import transaction def app(global_config, **settings): """ This function returns a ``pyramid`` WSGI application. It is usually called by the PasteDeploy framework during ``paster serve``""" # paster app config callback zodb_uri = settings['zodb_uri'] finder = PersistentApplicationFinder(zodb_uri, appmaker) def get_root(request): return finder(request.environ) config = Configurator(root_factory=get_root, settings=settings) # .. other configuration statements .. return config.make_wsgi_app()
Start the ZEO server in a terminal with the current directory set to the package directory:
../bin/runzeo -C zeo.conf
You should see something like this, as a result:
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[chrism@snowpro myapp]$ ../bin/runzeo -C zeo.conf ------ 2009-09-19T13:48:41 INFO ZEO.runzeo (9910) created PID file './zeo.pid' # ... more output ... 2009-09-19T13:48:41 INFO ZEO.zrpc (9910) listening on ./zeo.sock
While the ZEO server is running, start the application server:
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[chrism@snowpro myapp]$ ../bin/paster serve myapp.ini Starting server in PID 10177. serving on 0.0.0.0:6543 view at http://127.0.0.1:6543
The root object is now a “folderish” ZODB object. Nothing else about the application has changed.
You can manipulate the database directly (even when the application’s HTTP server is running) by using the pshell command in a third terminal window:
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[chrism@snowpro sess]$ ../bin/paster pshell \ myapp.ini myapp Python 2.5.4 (r254:67916, Sep 4 2009, 02:12:16) [GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5646)] on darwin Type "help" for more information. "root" is the Pyramid app root. >>> root <sess.models.MyModel object None at 0x16438f0> >>> root.foo = 'bar' >>> import transaction >>> transaction.commit()