Let's get our tutorial environment set up. Most of the set up work is in standard Python development practices (install Python and make an isolated virtual environment.)
Pyramid encourages standard Python development practices with packaging tools, virtual environments, logging, and so on. There are many variations, implementations, and opinions across the Python community. For consistency, ease of documentation maintenance, and to minimize confusion, the Pyramid documentation has adopted specific conventions that are consistent with the Python Packaging Authority.
This Quick Tutorial is based on:
- Python 3.5. Pyramid fully supports Python 3.3+ and Python 2.7+. This tutorial uses Python 3.5 but runs fine under Python 2.7.
- venv. We believe in virtual environments. For this tutorial, we use Python 3.5's built-in solution venv. For Python 2.7, you can install virtualenv.
- pip. We use pip for package management.
- Workspaces, projects, and packages. Our home directory will contain a tutorial workspace with our Python virtual environment and Python projects (a directory with packaging information and Python packages of working code.)
- Unix commands. Commands in this tutorial use UNIX syntax and paths. Windows users should adjust commands accordingly.
Pyramid was one of the first web frameworks to fully support Python 3 in October 2011.
Windows commands use the plain old MSDOS shell. For PowerShell command syntax, see its documentation.
- Install Python 3
- Create a project directory structure
- Set an environment variable
- Create a virtual environment
- Install Pyramid
Install Python 3¶
See the detailed recommendation for your operating system described under Installing Pyramid.
Create a project directory structure¶
We will arrive at a directory structure of
workspace -> project -> package,
where our workspace is named
quick_tutorial. The following tree diagram
shows how this will be structured, and where our virtual environment
will reside as we proceed through the tutorial:
`── ~ `── projects `── quick_tutorial │── env `── step_one │── intro │ │── __init__.py │ `── app.py `── setup.py
For Linux, the commands to do so are as follows:
# Mac and Linux $ cd ~ $ mkdir -p projects/quick_tutorial $ cd projects/quick_tutorial
# Windows c:\> cd \ c:\> mkdir projects\quick_tutorial c:\> cd projects\quick_tutorial
In the above figure, your user home directory is represented by
~. In your
home directory, all of your projects are in the
projects directory. This is
a general convention not specific to Pyramid that many developers use. Windows
users will do well to use
c:\ as the location for
projects in order to
avoid spaces in any of the path names.
projects is your workspace directory, here named
quick_tutorial. A workspace is a common term used by integrated
development environments (IDE), like PyCharm and PyDev, where virtual
environments, specific project files, and repositories are stored.
Set an environment variable¶
This tutorial will refer frequently to the location of the virtual environment. We set an environment variable to save typing later.
# Mac and Linux $ export VENV=~/projects/quick_tutorial/env
# Windows c:\> set VENV=c:\projects\quick_tutorial\env
Create a virtual environment¶
venv is a tool to create isolated Python 3 environments, each with its own
Python binary and independent set of installed Python packages in its site
directories. Let's create one, using the location we just specified in the
# Mac and Linux $ python3 -m venv $VENV
# Windows c:\> c:\Python35\python -m venv %VENV%
Update packaging tools in the virtual environment¶
It's always a good idea to update to the very latest version of packaging tools because the installed Python bundles only the version that was available at the time of its release.
# Mac and Linux $VENV/bin/pip install --upgrade pip setuptools
# Windows c:\> %VENV%\Scripts\pip install --upgrade pip setuptools
We have our Python standard prerequisites out of the way. The Pyramid part is pretty easy.
# Mac and Linux $ $VENV/bin/pip install "pyramid==1.7" # Windows c:\> %VENV%\Scripts\pip install "pyramid==1.7"
Our Python virtual environment now has the Pyramid software available.
You can optionally install some of the extra Python packages used in this tutorial.
# Mac and Linux $ $VENV/bin/pip install webtest pytest pytest-cov deform sqlalchemy \ pyramid_chameleon pyramid_debugtoolbar pyramid_jinja2 waitress \ pyramid_tm zope.sqlalchemy
# Windows c:\> %VENV%\Scripts\pip install webtest deform sqlalchemy pyramid_chameleon pyramid_debugtoolbar pyramid_jinja2 waitress pyramid_tm zope.sqlalchemy