webob.response – Response

Response

class webob.response.Response(body=None, status=None, headerlist=None, app_iter=None, content_type=None, conditional_response=None, charset=<object object>, **kw)

Represents a WSGI response.

If no arguments are passed, creates a Response that uses a variety of defaults. The defaults may be changed by sub-classing the Response. See the sub-classing notes.

Variables:
  • body (bytes or text_type) – If body is a text_type, then it will be encoded using either charset when provided or default_encoding when charset is not provided if the content_type allows for a charset. This argument is mutually exclusive with app_iter.
  • status (int or str) – Either an int or a string that is an integer followed by the status text. If it is an integer, it will be converted to a proper status that also includes the status text. Any existing status text will be kept. Non-standard values are allowed.
  • headerlist (list) – A list of HTTP headers for the response.
  • app_iter (iterable) – An iterator that is used as the body of the response. Should conform to the WSGI requirements and should provide bytes. This argument is mutually exclusive with body.
  • content_type (str or None) – Sets the Content-Type header. If no content_type is provided, and there is no headerlist, the default_content_type will be automatically set. If headerlist is provided then this value is ignored.
  • conditional_response (bool) – Used to change the behavior of the Response to check the original request for conditional response headers. See conditional_response_app() for more information.
  • charset (str or None) – Adds a charset Content-Type parameter. If no charset is provided and the Content-Type is text, then the default_charset will automatically be added. Currently the only Content-Type’s that allow for a charset are defined to be text/*, application/xml, and */*+xml. Any other Content-Type’s will not have a charset added. If a headerlist is provided this value is ignored.

All other response attributes may be set on the response by providing them as keyword arguments. A TypeError will be raised for any unexpected keywords.

Sub-classing notes:

  • The default_content_type is used as the default for the Content-Type header that is returned on the response. It is text/html.
  • The default_charset is used as the default character set to return on the Content-Type header, if the Content-Type allows for a charset parameter. Currently the only Content-Type’s that allow for a charset are defined to be: text/*, application/xml, and */*+xml. Any other Content-Type’s will not have a charset added.
  • The unicode_errors is set to strict, and access on a text will raise an error if it fails to decode the body.
  • default_conditional_response is set to False. This flag may be set to True so that all Response objects will attempt to check the original request for conditional response headers. See conditional_response_app() for more information.
  • default_body_encoding is set to ‘UTF-8’ by default. It exists to allow users to get/set the Response object using .text, even if no charset has been set for the Content-Type.
accept_ranges

Gets and sets the Accept-Ranges header (HTTP spec section 14.5).

age

Gets and sets the Age header (HTTP spec section 14.6). Converts it using int.

allow

Gets and sets the Allow header (HTTP spec section 14.7). Converts it using list.

app_iter

Returns the app_iter of the response.

If body was set, this will create an app_iter from that body (a single-item list).

app_iter_range(start, stop)

Return a new app_iter built from the response app_iter, that serves up only the given start:stop range.

body

The body of the response, as a bytes. This will read in the entire app_iter if necessary.

body_file

A file-like object that can be used to write to the body. If you passed in a list app_iter, that app_iter will be modified by writes.

cache_control

Get/set/modify the Cache-Control header (HTTP spec section 14.9).

charset

Get/set the charset specified in Content-Type.

There is no checking to validate that a content_type actually allows for a charset parameter.

conditional_response_app(environ, start_response)

Like the normal __call__ interface, but checks conditional headers:

  • If-Modified-Since (304 Not Modified; only on GET, HEAD)
  • If-None-Match (304 Not Modified; only on GET, HEAD)
  • Range (406 Partial Content; only on GET, HEAD)
content_disposition

Gets and sets the Content-Disposition header (HTTP spec section 19.5.1).

content_encoding

Gets and sets the Content-Encoding header (HTTP spec section 14.11).

content_language

Gets and sets the Content-Language header (HTTP spec section 14.12). Converts it using list.

content_length

Gets and sets the Content-Length header (HTTP spec section 14.17). Converts it using int.

content_location

Gets and sets the Content-Location header (HTTP spec section 14.14).

content_md5

Gets and sets the Content-MD5 header (HTTP spec section 14.14).

content_range

Gets and sets the Content-Range header (HTTP spec section 14.16). Converts it using ContentRange object.

content_type

Get/set the Content-Type header. If no Content-Type header is set, this will return None.

Changed in version 1.7: Setting a new Content-Type will remove all Content-Type parameters and reset the charset to the default if the Content-Type is text/* or XML (application/xml or */*+xml).

To preserve all Content-Type parameters, you may use the following code:

resp = Response()
params = resp.content_type_params
resp.content_type = 'application/something'
resp.content_type_params = params
content_type_params

A dictionary of all the parameters in the content type.

(This is not a view, set to change, modifications of the dict will not be applied otherwise.)

copy()

Makes a copy of the response.

date

Gets and sets the Date header (HTTP spec section 14.18). Converts it using HTTP date.

Delete a cookie from the client. Note that path and domain must match how the cookie was originally set.

This sets the cookie to the empty string, and max_age=0 so that it should expire immediately.

encode_content(encoding='gzip', lazy=False)

Encode the content with the given encoding (only gzip and identity are supported).

etag

Gets and sets the ETag header (HTTP spec section 14.19). Converts it using Entity tag.

expires

Gets and sets the Expires header (HTTP spec section 14.21). Converts it using HTTP date.

classmethod from_file(fp)

Reads a response from a file-like object (it must implement .read(size) and .readline()).

It will read up to the end of the response, not the end of the file.

This reads the response as represented by str(resp); it may not read every valid HTTP response properly. Responses must have a Content-Length.

has_body

Determine if the the response has a body. In contrast to simply accessing body, this method will not read the underlying app_iter.

headerlist

The list of response headers.

headers

The headers in a dictionary-like object.

json

Set/get the body of the response as JSON.

Note

This will automatically decode() the body as UTF-8 on get, and encode() the json.dumps() as UTF-8 before assigning to body.

json_body

Set/get the body of the response as JSON.

Note

This will automatically decode() the body as UTF-8 on get, and encode() the json.dumps() as UTF-8 before assigning to body.

last_modified

Gets and sets the Last-Modified header (HTTP spec section 14.29). Converts it using HTTP date.

location

Gets and sets the Location header (HTTP spec section 14.30).

md5_etag(body=None, set_content_md5=False)

Generate an etag for the response object using an MD5 hash of the body (the body parameter, or self.body if not given).

Sets self.etag.

If set_content_md5 is True, sets self.content_md5 as well.

merge_cookies(resp)

Merge the cookies that were set on this response with the given resp object (which can be any WSGI application).

If the resp is a webob.Response object, then the other object will be modified in-place.

pragma

Gets and sets the Pragma header (HTTP spec section 14.32).

retry_after

Gets and sets the Retry-After header (HTTP spec section 14.37). Converts it using HTTP date or delta seconds.

server

Gets and sets the Server header (HTTP spec section 14.38).

Set (add) a cookie for the response.

Arguments are:

name

The cookie name.

value

The cookie value, which should be a string or None. If value is None, it’s equivalent to calling the webob.response.Response.unset_cookie() method for this cookie key (it effectively deletes the cookie on the client).

max_age

An integer representing a number of seconds, datetime.timedelta, or None. This value is used as the Max-Age of the generated cookie. If expires is not passed and this value is not None, the max_age value will also influence the Expires value of the cookie (Expires will be set to now + max_age). If this value is None, the cookie will not have a Max-Age value (unless expires is set). If both max_age and expires are set, this value takes precedence.

path

A string representing the cookie Path value. It defaults to /.

domain

A string representing the cookie Domain, or None. If domain is None, no Domain value will be sent in the cookie.

secure

A boolean. If it’s True, the secure flag will be sent in the cookie, if it’s False, the secure flag will not be sent in the cookie.

httponly

A boolean. If it’s True, the HttpOnly flag will be sent in the cookie, if it’s False, the HttpOnly flag will not be sent in the cookie.

samesite

A string representing the SameSite attribute of the cookie or None. If samesite is None no SameSite value will be sent in the cookie. Should only be "Strict" or "Lax".

comment

A string representing the cookie Comment value, or None. If comment is None, no Comment value will be sent in the cookie.

expires

A datetime.timedelta object representing an amount of time, datetime.datetime or None. A non-None value is used to generate the Expires value of the generated cookie. If max_age is not passed, but this value is not None, it will influence the Max-Age header. If this value is None, the Expires cookie value will be unset (unless max_age is set). If max_age is set, it will be used to generate the expires and this value is ignored.

If a datetime.datetime is provided it has to either be timezone aware or be based on UTC. datetime.datetime objects that are local time are not supported. Timezone aware datetime.datetime objects are converted to UTC.

This argument will be removed in future versions of WebOb (version 1.9).

overwrite

If this key is True, before setting the cookie, unset any existing cookie.
status

The status string.

status_code

The status as an integer.

status_int

The status as an integer.

text

Get/set the text value of the body using the charset of the Content-Type or the default_body_encoding.

ubody

Deprecated alias for .text

unicode_body

Deprecated alias for .text

Unset a cookie with the given name (remove it from the response).

vary

Gets and sets the Vary header (HTTP spec section 14.44). Converts it using list.

www_authenticate

Gets and sets the WWW-Authenticate header (HTTP spec section 14.47). Converts it using parse_auth and serialize_auth.

class webob.response.ResponseBodyFile(response)
encoding

The encoding of the file (inherited from response.charset)

tell()

Provide the current location where we are going to start writing.

writelines(seq)

Write a sequence of lines to the response.

class webob.response.AppIterRange(app_iter, start, stop)

Wraps an app_iter, returning just a range of bytes.