WebOb Change History

1.8.7 (2021-02-17)


  • Decoding deflate-encoded responses now supports data which is packed in a zlib container as it is supposed to be. The old, non-standard behaviour is still supported.

    See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/426

1.8.6 (2020-01-21)

Experimental Features

1.8.5 (2019-01-03)


  • Fixed one last remaining invalid escape sequence in a docstring.

1.8.4 (2018-11-11)



  • Some backslashes introduced with the new accept handling code were causing DeprecationWarnings upon compiling the source to pyc files, all of the backslashes have been reigned in as appropriate, and users should no longer see DeprecationWarnings for invalid escape sequence. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/384

1.8.3 (2018-10-14)


  • acceptparse.AcceptValidHeader, acceptparse.AcceptInvalidHeader, and acceptparse.AcceptNoHeader will now always ignore offers that do not match the required media type grammar when calling .acceptable_offers(). Previous versions raised a ValueError for invalid offers in AcceptValidHeader and returned them as acceptable in the others. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/372


  • Add Request.remote_host, exposing REMOTE_HOST environment variable.
  • Added acceptparse.Accept.parse_offer to codify what types of offers are compatible with acceptparse.AcceptValidHeader.acceptable_offers, acceptparse.AcceptMissingHeader.acceptable_offers, and acceptparse.AcceptInvalidHeader.acceptable_offers. This API also normalizes the offer with lowercased type/subtype and parameter names. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/376 and https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/379

1.8.2 (2018-06-05)


1.8.1 (2018-04-10)


  • acceptparse.MIMEAccept which is deprecated in WebOb 1.8.0 made a backwards incompatible change that led to it raising on an invalid Accept header. This behaviour has now been reversed, as well as some other fixes to allow MIMEAccept to behave more like the old version. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/356

1.8.0 (2018-04-04)


  • request.POST now supports any requests with the appropriate Content-Type. Allowing any HTTP method to access form encoded content, including DELETE, PUT, and others. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/352


  • WebOb is no longer officially supported on Python 3.3 which was EOL'ed on 2017-09-29.

Backwards Incompatibilities

Experimental Features

These features are experimental and may change at any point in the future.


  • Exceptions now use string.Template.safe_substitute rather than string.Template.substitute. The latter would raise for missing mappings, the former will simply not substitute the missing variable. This is safer in case the WSGI environ does not contain the keys necessary for the body template. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/345.
  • Request.host_url, Request.host_port, Request.domain correctly parse IPv6 Host headers as provided by a browser. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/332
  • Request.authorization would raise ValueError for unusual or malformed header values. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/231
  • Allow unnamed fields in form data to be properly transcoded when calling request.decode with an alternate encoding. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/309
  • Response.__init__ would discard app_iter when a Response had no body, this would cause issues when app_iter was an object that was tied to the life-cycle of a web application and had to be properly closed. app_iter is more advanced API for Response and thus even if it contains a body and is thus against the HTTP RFC's, we should let the users shoot themselves by returning a body. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/305

1.7rc1 (2016-11-18)


  • WebOb is no longer supported on Python 2.6 and PyPy3 (due to pip no longer supporting Python 3.2 even on PyPy)

Backwards Incompatibility

  • Response.set_cookie no longer accepts a key argument. This was deprecated in WebOb 1.5 and as mentioned in the deprecation, is being removed in 1.7
  • Response.__init__ will no longer set the default Content-Type, nor Content-Length on Responses that don't have a body. This allows WebOb to return proper responses for things like Response(status='204 No Content').
  • Response.text will no longer raise if the Content-Type does not have a charset, it will fall back to using the new default_body_encoding`. To get the old behaviour back please sub-class ``Response and set default_body_encoding to None. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/287
  • WebOb no longer supports Chunked Encoding, this means that if you are using WebOb and need Chunked Encoding you will be required to have a proxy that unchunks the request for you. Please read https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/279 for more background.



1.6.0 (2016-03-15)


  • Python 3.2 is no longer supported by WebOb




1.5.1 (2015-10-30)

Bug Fixes

  • The exceptions HTTPNotAcceptable, HTTPUnsupportedMediaType and HTTPNotImplemented will now correctly use the sub-classed template rather than the default error template. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/221
  • Response's from_file now correctly deals with a status line that contains an HTTP version identifier. HTTP/1.1 200 OK is now correctly parsed, whereas before this would raise an error upon setting the Response.status in from_file. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/121

1.5.0 (2015-10-11)

Bug Fixes

  • The cookie API functions will now make sure that max_age is an integer or an string that can convert to an integer. Previously passing in max_age='test' would have silently done the wrong thing.


Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Response.set_cookie renamed the only required parameter from "key" to "name". The code will now still accept "key" as a keyword argument, and will issue a DeprecationWarning until WebOb 1.7.
  • The status attribute of a Response object no longer takes a string like None None and allows that to be set as the status. It now has to at least match the pattern of <integer status code> <explenation of status code>. Invalid status strings will now raise a ValueError.

1.5.0a0 (2015-07-25)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Morsel will no longer accept a cookie value that does not meet RFC6265's cookie-octet specification. Upon calling Morsel.serialize a warning will be issued, in the future this will raise a ValueError, please update your cookie handling code. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/172

    The cookie-octet specification in RFC6265 states the following characters are valid in a cookie value:

    Hex Range Actual Characters
    [0x21     ] !
    [0x25-0x2B] #$%&'()*+
    [0x2D-0x3A] -./0123456789:
    [0x5D-0x7E] ]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~

    RFC6265 suggests using base 64 to serialize data before storing data in a cookie.

    Cookies that meet the RFC6265 standard will no longer be quoted, as this is unnecessary. This is a no-op as far as browsers and cookie storage is concerned.

  • Response.set_cookie now uses the internal make_cookie API, which will issue warnings if cookies are set with invalid bytes. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/172


  • Add support for some new caching headers, stale-while-revalidate and stale-if-error that can be used by reverse proxies to cache stale responses temporarily if the backend disappears. From RFC5861. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/189

Bug Fixes

Documentation Changes

1.4 (2014-05-14)


  • Remove webob.__version__, the version number had not been kept in sync with the official pkg version. To obtain the WebOb version number, use pkg_resources.get_distribution('webob').version instead.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix a bug in EmptyResponse that prevents it from setting self.close as appropriate due to testing truthiness of object rather than if it is something other than None.
  • Fix a bug in SignedSerializer preventing secrets from containing higher-order characters. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/issues/136
  • Use the hmac.compare_digest method when available for constant-time comparisons.

1.3.1 (2013-12-13)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix a bug in SignedCookieProfile whereby we didn't keep the original serializer around, this would cause us to have SignedSerializer be added on top of a SignedSerializer which would cause it to be run twice when attempting to verify a cookie. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/127

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • When CookieProfile.get_value and SignedCookieProfile.get_value fails to deserialize a badly encoded value, we now return None as if the cookie was never set in the first place instead of allowing a ValueError to be raised to the calling code. See https://github.com/Pylons/webob/pull/126

1.3 (2013-12-10)


  • Added a read-only domain property to BaseRequest. This property returns the domain portion of the host value. For example, if the environment contains an HTTP_HOST value of foo.example.com:8000, request.domain will return foo.example.com.
  • Added five new APIs: webob.cookies.CookieProfile, webob.cookies.SignedCookieProfile, webob.cookies.JSONSerializer and webob.cookies.SignedSerializer, and webob.cookies.make_cookie. These APIs are convenience APIs for generating and parsing cookie headers as well as dealing with signing cookies.
  • Cookies generated via webob.cookies quoted characters in cookie values that did not need to be quoted per RFC 6265. The following characters are no longer quoted in cookie values: ~/=<>()[]{}?@ . The full set of non-letter-or-digit unquoted cookie value characters is now !#$%&'*+-.^_`|~/: =<>()[]{}?@. See http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6265#section-4.1.1 for more information.
  • Cookie names are now restricted to the set of characters expected by RFC 6265. Previously they could contain unsupported characters such as /.
  • Older versions of Webob escaped the doublequote to \" and the backslash to \\ when quoting cookie values. Now, instead, cookie serialization generates \042 for the doublequote and \134 for the backslash. This is what is expected as per RFC 6265. Note that old cookie values that do have the older style quoting in them will still be unquoted correctly, however.
  • Added support for draft status code 451 ("Unavailable for Legal Reasons"). See http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-tbray-http-legally-restricted-status-00
  • Added status codes 428, 429, 431 and 511 to util.status_reasons (they were already present in a previous release as webob.exc exceptions).

Bug Fixes


  • Maintainership transferred to Pylons Project <http://www.pylonsproject.org/>
  • Fix parsing of form submissions where fields have transfer-content-encoding headers.


  • Fix multiple calls to cache_expires() not fully overriding the previously set headers.
  • Fix parsing of form submissions where fields have different encodings.


  • Add index page (e.g., index.html) support for webob.static.DirectoryApp.
  • Detect mime-type when creating a test request with file uploads (Request.blank("/", POST=dict(file1=("foo.jpg", "xxx"))))
  • Relax parsing of Accept and Range headers to allow uppercase and extra whitespace.
  • Fix docs references to some deprecated classes.


  • Fix webob.client handling of connection-refused on Windows.
  • Use simplejson in webob.request if present.
  • Fix resp.retry_after = <long> interpreting value as a UNIX timestamp (should interpret as time delta in seconds).


  • Add Response.json and Request.json which reads and sets the body using a JSON encoding (previously only the readable attribute Request.json_body existed). Request.json_body is still available as an alias.

  • Rename Response.status_int to Response.status_code (the .status_int name is still available and will be supported indefinitely).

  • Add Request.text, the unicode version of the request body (similar to Response.text).

  • Add webob.client which contains the WSGI application send_request_app and SendRequest. All requests sent to this application are turned into HTTP requests.

  • Renamed Request.get_response(app) to Request.send(app). The .get_response() name is still available.

  • Use send_request_app as the default application for Request.send(), so you can do:

    resp = Request.blank("http://python.org").send()

  • Add webob.static which contains two new WSGI applications, FileApp serve one static file and DirectoryApp to serve the content of a directory. They should provide a reusable implementation of WebOb File-Serving Example. It also comes with support for wsgi.file_wrapper.

    The implementation has been imported and simplified from PasteOb.fileapp.

  • Add dev and docs setup.py aliases (to install development and docs dependencies respectively, e.g. "python setup.py dev").


  • Added request.host_port API (returns port number implied by HTTP_HOST, falling back to SERVER_PORT).

  • Added request.client_addr API (returns IP address implied by HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR, falling back to REMOTE_ADDR).

  • Fix corner-case response.status_int and response.status mutation bug on py3 (use explicit floor division).

  • Backwards incompatibility: Request and BaseRequest objects now return Unicode for request.path_info and request.script_name under Python 2. Rationale: the legacy behavior of returning the respective raw environ values was nonsensical on Python 3. Working with non-ascii encoded environ variables as raw WSGI values under Python 3 makes no sense, as PEP 3333 specifies that environ variables are bytes-tunneled-as-latin-1 strings.

    If you don't care about Python 3, and you need strict backwards compatibility, to get legacy behavior of returning bytes on Python 2 for these attributes, use webob.LegacyRequest instead of webob.Request. Although it's possible to use webob.LegacyRequest under Python 3, it makes no sense, and it should not be used there.

  • The above backwards incompatibility fixed nonsensical behavior of request.host_url, request.application_url, request.path_url, request.path, request.path_qs, request.url, request.relative_url, request.path_info_peek, request.path_info_pop under Python 3. These methods previously dealt with raw SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO values, which caused nonsensical results.

  • The WebOb Request object now respects an additional WSGI environment variable: webob.url_encoding. webob.url_encoding will be used to decode the raw WSGI PATH_INFO and SCRIPT_NAME variables when the request.path_info and request.script_name APIs are used.

  • Request objects now accept an additional constructor parameter: url_encoding. url_encoding will be used to decode PATH_INFO and SCRIPT_NAME from its WSGI-encoded values. If webob.url_encoding is not set in the environ and url_encoding is not passed to the Request constructor, the default value utf-8 will be used to decode the PATH_INFO and SCRIPT_NAME.

    Note that passing url_encoding will cause the WSGI environment variable webob.url_encoding to be set.

  • Fix webob.response._request_uri internal function to generate sensible request URI under Python 3. This fixed a problem under Python 3 if you were using non-absolute Location headers in responses.


  • Fix request.cookies.get('name', 'default'). Previously default was ignored.


  • Mutating the request.cookies property now reflects the mutations into the HTTP_COOKIES environ header.
  • Response.etag = (tag, False) sets weak etag.
  • Range only parses single range now.
  • Range.satisfiable(..) is gone.
  • Accept.best_matches() is gone; use list(request.accept) or request.accept.best_match(..) instead (applies to all Accept-* headers) or similar with request.accept_language.
  • Response.request and Response.environ attrs are undeprecated and no longer raise exceptions when used. These can also be passed to the Response constructor. This is to support codebases that pass them to the constructor or assign them to a response instance. However, some behavior differences from 1.1 exist. In particular, synchronization is no longer done between environ and request attribute properties of Response; you may pass either to the constructor (or both) or assign one or the other or both, but they wont be managed specially and will remain the same over the lifetime of the response just as you passed them. Default values for both request and environ on any given response are None now.
  • Undeprecated uscript_name and upath_info.
  • For backwards compatibility purposes, switch req.script_name and path_info back again to contain "raw" undecoded native strings rather than text. Use uscript_name and upath_info to get the text version of SCRIPT_NAME and PATH_INFO.
  • Don't raise an exception if unicode_errors or decode_param_names is passed to the Request constructor. Instead, emit a warning. For benefit of Pylons 1.X, which passes both.
  • Don't raise an exception if HTTPException.exception is used; instead emit a warning. For benefit of Pylons 1.X, which uses it.


  • req.script_name and path_info now contain text, not bytes.
  • Deprecated uscript_name and upath_info.
  • charset argument to Request as well as the attribute can only be set to UTF-8 or the value already present in the Content-Type header.
  • unicode_errors attribute of Request and related functionality is gone.
  • To process requests that come in an encoding different from UTF-8, the request needs to be transcoded like this: req = req.decode('windows-1251')
  • Added support for weak ETag matching in conditional responses.
  • Most of etag-related functionality was refactored.


  • Python 3.2 compatibility.
  • No longer compatible with Python 2.5 (only 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2 are supported).
  • Switched VCS from Mercurial to Git
  • Moved development to GitHub
  • Added full history from PyCon 2011 sprint to the repository
  • Change LimitedLengthFile and FakeCGIBody to inherit from io.RawIOBase and benefit from io.BufferedReader.
  • Do not set resp.request in req.get_response(app)
  • Response.request and .environ attrs are deprecated and raise exceptions when used.
  • Deprecated request attributes str_GET, str_POST, str_cookies and str_params now raise exceptions when touched.
  • Remove testing dependency on WebTest.
  • Remove UnicodeMultiDict class; the result of Request.GET and Request.POST is now just a plain MultiDict.
  • The decode_param_names Request constructor argument has been removed, along with the Request.decode_param_names attribute.
  • The Request.as_string() method is now better known as Request.as_bytes().
  • The Request.from_string() method is now better known as Request.from_bytes().
  • A new method named Request.as_text() now exists.
  • A new method named Request.from_text() now exists.
  • The webob.dec.wsgify repr() is now much less informative, but a lot easier to test and maintain.


  • Fix disconnect detection being incorrect in some cases (issue 21).
  • Fix exception when calling .accept.best_match(..) on a header containing '*' (instead of '*/*').
  • Extract some of the Accept code into subclasses (AcceptCharset, AcceptLanguage).
  • Improve language matching so that the app can now offer a generic language code and it will match any of the accepted dialects ('en' in AcceptLanguage('en-gb')).
  • Normalize locale names when matching ('en_GB' in AcceptLanguage('en-gb')).
  • Deprecate etag.weak_match(..).
  • Deprecate Response.request and Response.environ attrs.


  • Remove deprecation warnings for unicode_body and ubody.


  • Deprecate Response.ubody / .unicode_body in favor of new .text attribute (the old names will be removed in 1.3 or even later).
  • Make Response.write much more efficient (issue 18).
  • Make sure copying responses does not reset Content-Length or Content-MD5 of the original (and that of future copies).
  • Change del res.body semantics so that it doesn't make the response invalid, but only removes the response body.
  • Remove Response._body so the _app_iter is the only representation.


  • Add detection for browser / user-agent disconnects. If the client disconnected before sending the entire request body (POST / PUT), req.POST, req.body and other related properties and methods will raise an exception. Previously this caused the application get a truncated request with no indication that it is incomplete.
  • Make Response.body_file settable. This is now valid: Response(body_file=open('foo.bin'), content_type=...)
  • Revert the restriction on req.body not being settable for GET and some other requests. Such requests actually can have a body according to HTTP BIS (see also commit message)
  • Add support for file upload testing via Request.blank(POST=..). Patch contributed by Tim Perevezentsev. See also: ticket, changeset.
  • Deprecate req.str_GET, str_POST, str_params and str_cookies (warning).
  • Deprecate req.decode_param_names (warning).
  • Change req.decode_param_names default to True. This means that .POST, .GET, .params and .cookies keys are now unicode. This is necessary for WebOb to behave as close as possible on Python 2 and Python 3.


  • We have acquired the webob.org domain, docs are now hosted at docs.webob.org
  • Make accept.quality(..) return best match quality, not first match quality.
  • Fix Range.satisfiable(..) edge cases.
  • Make sure WSGIHTTPException instances return the same headers for HEAD and GET requests.
  • Drop Python 2.4 support
  • Deprecate HTTPException.exception (warning on use).
  • Deprecate accept.first_match(..) (warning on use). Use .best_match(..) instead.
  • Complete deprecation of req.[str_]{post|query}vars properties (exception on use).
  • Remove FakeCGIBody.seek hack (no longer necessary).


  • Escape commas in cookie values (see also: stdlib Cookie bug)
  • Change cookie serialization to more closely match how cookies usually are serialized (unquoted expires, semicolon separators even between morsels)
  • Fix some rare cases in cookie parsing
  • Enhance the req.is_body_readable to always guess GET, HEAD, DELETE and TRACE as unreadable and PUT and POST as readable (issue 12)
  • Deny setting req.body or req.body_file to non-empty values for GET, HEAD and other bodiless requests
  • Fix running nosetests with arguments on UNIX systems (issue 11)


  • Fix Accept header matching for items with zero-quality (issue 10)
  • Hide password values in MultiDict.__repr__


  • Use environ['wsgi.input'].read() instead of .read(-1) because the former is explicitly mentioned in PEP-3333 and CherryPy server does not support the latter.
  • Add new environ['webob.is_body_readable'] flag which specifies if the input stream is readable even if the CONTENT_LENGTH is not set. WebOb now only ever reads the input stream if the content-length is known or this flag is set.
  • The two changes above fix a hangup with CherryPy and wsgiref servers (issue 6)
  • req.body_file is now safer to read directly. For GET and other similar requests it returns an empty StringIO or BytesIO object even if the server passed in something else.
  • Setting req.body_file to a string now produces a PendingDeprecationWarning. It will produce DeprecationWarning in 1.1 and raise an error in 1.2. Either set req.body_file to a file-like object or set req.body to a string value.
  • Fix .pop() and .setdefault(..) methods of req/resp.cache_control
  • Thanks to the participants of Pyramid sprint at the PyCon US 2011 WebOb now has 100% test coverage.


  • Restore Python 2.4 compatibility.


  • The field names escaping bug semi-fixed in 1.0.3 and originally blamed on cgi module was in fact a webob.request._encode_multipart bug (also in Google Chrome) and was lurking in webob code for quite some time -- 1.0.2 just made it trigger more often. Now it is fixed properly.
  • Make sure that req.url and related properties do not unnecessarily escape some chars (:@&+$) in the URI path (issue 5)
  • Revert some changes from 1.0.3 that have broken backwards compatibility for some apps. Getting req.body_file does not make input stream seekable, but there's a new property req.body_file_seekable that does.
  • Request.get_response and Request.call_application seek the input body to start before calling the app (if possible).
  • Accessing req.body 'rewinds' the input stream back to pos 0 as well.
  • When accessing req.POST we now avoid making the body seekable as the input stream data are preserved in FakeCGIBody anyway.
  • Add new method Request.from_string.
  • Make sure Request.as_string() uses CRLF to separate headers.
  • Improve parity between Request.as_string() and .from_file/.from_string methods, so that the latter can parse output of the former and create a similar request object which wasn't always the case previously.


  • Correct a caching issue introduced in WebOb 1.0.2 that was causing unnecessary reparsing of POST requests.
  • Fix a bug regarding field names escaping for forms submitted as multipart/form-data. For more infromation see the bug report and discussion and 1.0.4 notes for further fix.
  • Add req.http_version attribute.


  • Primary maintainer is now Sergey Schetinin.
  • Issue tracker moved from Trac to bitbucket's issue tracker
  • WebOb 1.0.1 changed the behavior of MultiDict.update to be more in line with other dict-like objects. We now also issue a warning when we detect that the client code seems to expect the old, extending semantics.
  • Make Response.set_cookie(key, None) set the 'delete-cookie' (same as .delete_cookie(key))
  • Make req.upath_info and req.uscript_name settable
  • Add :meth:Request.as_string() method
  • Add a req.is_body_seekable property
  • Support for the deflate method with resp.decode_content()
  • To better conform to WSGI spec we no longer attempt to use seek on wsgi.input file instead we assume it is not seekable unless env['webob.is_body_seekable'] is set. When making the body seekable we set that flag.
  • A call to req.make_body_seekable() now guarantees that the body is seekable, is at 0 position and that a correct req.content_length is present.
  • req.body_file is always seekable. To access env['wsgi.input'] without any processing, use req.body_file_raw. (Partially reverted in 1.0.4)
  • Fix responses to HEAD requests with Range.
  • Fix del resp.content_type, del req.body, del req.cache_control
  • Fix resp.merge_cookies() when called with an argument that is not a Response instance.
  • Fix resp.content_body = None (was removing Cache-Control instead)
  • Fix req.body_file = f setting CONTENT_LENGTH to -1 (now removes from environ)
  • Fix: make sure req.copy() leaves the original with seekable body
  • Fix handling of WSGI environs with missing SCRIPT_NAME
  • A lot of tests were added by Mariano Mara and Danny Navarro.


  • As WebOb requires Python 2.4 or later, drop some compatibility modules and update the code to use the decorator syntax.
  • Implement optional on-the-fly response compression (resp.encode_content(lazy=True))
  • Drop util.safezip module and make util a module instead of a subpackage. Merge statusreasons into it.
  • Instead of using stdlib Cookie with monkeypatching, add a derived but thoroughly rewritten, cleaner, safer and faster webob.cookies module.
  • Fix: Response.merge_cookies now copies the headers before modification instead of doing it in-place.
  • Fix: setting request header attribute to None deletes that header. (Bug only affected the 1.0 release).
  • Use io.BytesIO for the request body file on Python 2.7 and newer.
  • If a UnicodeMultiDict was used as the multi argument of another UnicodeMultiDict, and a cgi.FieldStorage with a filename with high-order characters was present in the underlying UnicodeMultiDict, a UnicodeEncodeError would be raised when any helper method caused the _decode_value method to be called, because the method would try to decode an already decoded string.
  • Fix tests to pass under Python 2.4.
  • Add descriptive docstrings to each exception in webob.exc.
  • Change the behaviour of MultiDict.update to overwrite existing header values instead of adding new headers. The extending semantics are now available via the extend method.
  • Fix a bug in webob.exc.WSGIHTTPException.__init__. If a list of headers was passed as a sequence which contained duplicate keys (for example, multiple Set-Cookie headers), all but one of those headers would be lost, because the list was effectively flattened into a dictionary as the result of calling self.headers.update. Fixed via calling self.headers.extend instead.


  • 1.0, yay!
  • Pull in werkzeug Cookie fix for malformed cookie bug.
  • Implement Request.from_file() and Response.from_file() which are kind of the inversion of str(req) and str(resp)
  • Add optional pattern argument to Request.path_info_pop() that requires the path_info segment to match the passed regexp to get popped and returned.
  • Rewrite most of descriptor implementations for speed.
  • Reorder descriptor declarations to group them by their semantics.
  • Move code around so that there are fewer compat modules.
  • Change :meth:HTTPError.__str__ to better conform to PEP 352.
  • Make Request.cache_control a view on the headers.
  • Correct Accept-Language and Accept-Charset matching to fully conform to the HTTP spec.
  • Expose parts of Request.blank() as environ_from_url() and environ_add_POST()
  • Fix Authorization header parsing for some corner cases.
  • Fix an error generated if the user-agent sends a 'Content_Length' header (note the underscore).
  • Kill Request.default_charset. Request charset defaults to UTF-8. This ensures that all values in req.GET, req.POST and req.params are always unicode.
  • Fix the headerlist and content_type constructor arguments priorities for HTTPError and subclasses.
  • Add support for weak etags to conditional Response objects.
  • Fix locale-dependence for some cookie dates strings.
  • Improve overall test coverage.
  • Rename class webob.datastruct.EnvironHeaders to webob.headers.EnvironHeaders
  • Rename class webob.headerdict.HeaderDict to webob.headers.ResponseHeaders
  • Rename class webob.updatedict.UpdateDict to webob.cachecontrol.UpdateDict


  • Fix issue with WSGIHTTPException inadvertently generating unicode body and failing to encode it
  • WWW-Authenticate response header is accessible as response.www_authenticate
  • response.www_authenticate and request.authorization hold None or tuple (auth_method, params) where params is a dictionary (or a string when auth_method is not one of known auth schemes and for Authenticate: Basic ...)
  • Don't share response headers when getting a response like resp = req.get_response(some_app); this can avoid some funny errors with modifying headers and reusing Response objects.
  • Add overwrite argument to Response.set_cookie() that make the new value overwrite the previously set. False by default.
  • Add strict argument to Response.unset_cookie() that controls if an exception should be raised in case there are no cookies to unset. True by default.
  • Fix req.GET.copy()
  • Make sure that 304 Not Modified responses generated by Response.conditional_response_app() exclude Content-{Length/Type} headers
  • Fix Response.copy() not being an independent copy
  • When the requested range is not satisfiable, return a 416 error (was returning entire body)
  • Truncate response for range requests that go beyond the end of body (was treating as invalid).

  • Fix an import problem with Pylons


  • Moved repository from svn location to http://bitbucket.org/ianb/webob/
  • Arguments to Accept.best_match() must be specific types, not wildcards. The server should know a list of specic types it can offer and use best_match to select a specific one.
  • With req.accept.best_match([types]) prefer the first type in the list (previously it preferred later types).
  • Also, make sure that if the user-agent accepts multiple types and there are multiple matches to the types that the application offers, req.accept.best_match([..]) returns the most specific match. So if the server can satisfy either image/* or text/plain types, the latter will be picked independent from the order the accepted or offered types are listed (given they have the same quality rating).
  • Fix Range, Content-Range and AppIter support all of which were broken in many ways, incorrectly parsing ranges, reporting incorrect content-ranges, failing to generate the correct body to satisfy the range from app_iter etc.
  • Fix assumption that presense of a seek method means that the stream is seekable.
  • Add ubody alias for Response.unicode_body
  • Add Unicode versions of Request.script_name and path_info: uscript_name and upath_info.
  • Split __init__.py into four modules: request, response, descriptors and datetime_utils.
  • Fix Response.body access resetting Content-Length to zero for HEAD responses.
  • Support passing Unicode bodies to WSGIHTTPException constructors.
  • Make bool(req.accept) return False for requests with missing Accept header.
  • Add HTTP version to Request.__str__() output.
  • Resolve deprecation warnings for parse_qsl on Python 2.6 and newer.
  • Fix Response.md5_etag() setting Content-MD5 in incorrect format.
  • Add Request.authorization property for Authorization header.
  • Make sure ETag value is always quoted (required by RFC)
  • Moved most Request behavior into a new class named BaseRequest. The Request class is now a superclass for BaseRequest and a simple mixin which manages environ['webob.adhoc_attrs'] when __setitem__, __delitem__ and __getitem__ are called. This allows framework developers who do not want the environ['webob.adhoc_attrs'] mutation behavior from __setattr__. (chrism)
  • Added response attribute response.content_disposition for its associated header.
  • Changed how charset is determined on webob.Request objects. Now the charset parameter is read on the Content-Type header, if it is present. Otherwise a default_charset parameter is read, or the charset argument to the Request constructor. This is more similar to how webob.Response handles the charset.
  • Made the case of the Content-Type header consistent (note: this might break some doctests).
  • Make req.GET settable, such that req.environ['QUERY_STRING'] is updated.
  • Fix problem with req.POST causing a re-parse of the body when you instantiate multiple Request objects over the same environ (e.g., when using middleware that looks at req.POST).
  • Recreate the request body properly when a POST includes file uploads.
  • When req.POST is updated, the generated body will include the new values.
  • Added a POST parameter to webob.Request.blank(); when given this will create a request body for the POST parameters (list of two-tuples or dictionary-like object). Note: this does not handle unicode or file uploads.
  • Added method webob.Response.merge_cookies(), which takes the Set-Cookie headers from a Response, and merges them with another response or WSGI application. (This is useful for flash messages.)
  • Fix a problem with creating exceptions like webob.exc.HTTPNotFound(body='<notfound/>', content_type='application/xml') (i.e., non-HTML exceptions).
  • When a Location header is not absolute in a Response, it will be made absolute when the Response is called as a WSGI application. This makes the response less bound to a specific request.
  • Added webob.dec, a decorator for making WSGI applications from functions with the signature resp = app(req).

  • Fixed Response.__init__(), which for some content types would raise an exception.
  • The req.body property will not recreate a StringIO object unnecessarily when rereading the body.


  • Removed environ_getter from webob.Request. This largely-unused option allowed a Request object to be instantiated with a dynamic underlying environ. Since it wasn't used much, and might have been ill-advised from the beginning, and affected performance, it has been removed (from Chris McDonough).
  • Speed ups for webob.Response.__init__() and webob.Request.__init__()
  • Fix defaulting of CONTENT_TYPE instead of CONTENT_LENGTH to 0 in Request.str_POST.
  • Added webob.Response.copy()


  • Fix Request.blank('/').copy() raising an exception.
  • Fix a potential memory leak with HEAD requests and 304 responses.
  • Make webob.html_escape() respect the .__html__() magic method, which allows you to use HTML in webob.exc.HTTPException instances.
  • Handle unicode values for resp.location.
  • Allow arbitrary keyword arguments to exc.HTTP* (the same keywords you can send to webob.Response).
  • Allow setting webob.Response.cache_expires() (usually it is called as a method). This is primarily to allow Response(cache_expires=True).


  • Quiet Python 2.6 deprecation warnings.
  • Added an attribute unicode_errors to webob.Response -- if set to something like unicode_errors='replace' it will decode resp.body appropriately. The default is strict (which was the former un-overridable behavior).


  • Make sure that if changing the body the Content-MD5 header is removed. (Otherwise a lot of middleware would accidentally corrupt responses).
  • Fixed Response.encode_content('identity') case (was a no-op even for encoded bodies).
  • Fixed Request.remove_conditional_headers() that was removing If-Match header instead of If-None-Match.
  • Fixed resp.set_cookie(max_age=timedelta(...))
  • request.POST now supports PUT requests with the appropriate Content-Type.


  • Add more arguments to Request.remove_conditional_headers() for more fine-grained control: remove_encoding, remove_range, remove_match, remove_modified. All of them are True by default.
  • Add an set_content_md5 argument to Response.md5_etag() that calculates and sets Content-MD5 reponse header from current body.
  • Change formatting of cookie expires, to use the more traditional format Wed, 5-May-2001 15:34:10 GMT (dashes instead of spaces). Browsers should deal with either format, but some other code expects dashes.
  • Added in sorted function for backward compatibility with Python 2.3.
  • Allow keyword arguments to webob.Request, which assign attributes (possibly overwriting values in the environment).
  • Added methods webob.Request.make_body_seekable() and webob.Request.copy_body(), which make it easier to share a request body among different consuming applications, doing something like req.make_body_seekable(); req.body_file.seek(0)


  • request.params.copy() now returns a writable MultiDict (before it returned an unwritable object).
  • There were several things broken with UnicodeMultiDict when decode_param_names is turned on (when the dictionary keys are unicode).
  • You can pass keyword arguments to Request.blank() that will be used to construct Request (e.g., Request.blank('/', decode_param_names=True)).
  • If you set headers like response.etag to a unicode value, they will be encoded as ISO-8859-1 (however, they will remain encoded, and response.etag will not be a unicode value).
  • When parsing, interpret times with no timezone as UTC (previously they would be interpreted as local time).
  • Set the Expires property on cookies when using response.set_cookie(). This is inherited from max_age.
  • Support Unicode cookie values


  • Added req.urlarg, which represents positional arguments in environ['wsgiorg.routing_args'].
  • For Python 2.4, added attribute get/set proxies on exception objects from, for example, webob.exc.HTTPNotFound().exception, so that they act more like normal response objects (despite not being new-style classes or webob.Response objects). In Python 2.5 the exceptions are webob.Response objects.

Backward Incompatible Changes

  • The Response constructor has changed: it is now Response([body], [status], ...) (before it was Response([status], [body], ...)). Body may be str or unicode.
  • The Response class defaults to text/html for the Content-Type, and utf8 for the charset (charset is only set on text/* and application/*+xml responses).

Bugfixes and Small Changes

  • Use BaseCookie instead of SimpleCookie for parsing cookies.
  • Added resp.write(text) method, which is equivalent to resp.body += text or resp.unicode_body += text, depending on the type of text.
  • The decode_param_names argument (used like Request(decode_param_names=True)) was being ignored.
  • Unicode decoding of file uploads and file upload filenames were causing errors when decoding non-file-upload fields (both fixes from Ryan Barrett).


  • Added response methods resp.encode_content() and resp.decode_content() to gzip or ungzip content.
  • Response(status=404) now works (before you would have to use status="404 Not Found").
  • Bugfix (typo) with reusing POST body.
  • Added 226 IM Used response status.
  • Backport of string.Template included for Python 2.3 compatibility.


  • __setattr__ would keep Request subclasses from having properly settable environ proxies (like req.path_info).


  • request.POST was giving FieldStorage objects for every attribute, not just file uploads. This is fixed now.
  • Added request attributes req.server_name and req.server_port for the environ keys SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT.
  • Avoid exceptions in req.content_length, even if environ['CONTENT_LENGTH'] is somehow invalid.


  • Python 2.3 compatibility: backport of reversed(seq)
  • Made separate .exception attribute on webob.exc objects, since new-style classes can't be raised as exceptions.
  • Deprecate req.postvars and req.queryvars, instead using the sole names req.GET and req.POST (also req.str_GET and req.str_POST). The old names give a warning; will give an error in next release, and be completely gone in the following release.
  • req.user_agent is now just a simple string (parsing the User-Agent header was just too volatile, and required too much knowledge about current browsers). Similarly, req.referer_search_query() is gone.
  • Added parameters version and comment to Response.set_cookie(), per William Dode's suggestion.
  • Was accidentally consuming file uploads, instead of putting the FieldStorage object directly in the parameters.


  • Added res.set_cookie(..., httponly=True) to set the HttpOnly attribute on the cookie, which keeps Javascript from reading the cookie.
  • Added some WebDAV-related responses to webob.exc
  • Set default Last-Modified when using response.cache_expire() (fixes issue with Opera)
  • Generally fix .cache_control


First release. Nothing is new, or everything is new, depending on how you think about it.